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约翰福音信息之二十---耶稣基督的超越

约3:31-36

“从天上来的,是在万有之上。从地上来的,是属乎地,他所说的,也是属乎地。从天上来的,是在万有之上。祂将所见所闻的见证出来,只是没有人领受祂的见证。那领受他见证的,就印上印,证明神是真的。神所差来的,就说神的话。因为神赐圣灵给祂,是没有限量的。父爱子,已将万有交在祂手里。信子的人有永生。不信子的人得不着永生,神的震怒常在他身上。”(约3:31-36)


“He who comes from above is above all. He who is of the earth belongs to the earth and speaks in an earthly way. He who comes from heaven is above all. He bears witness to what He has seen and heard, yet no one receives His testimony. Whoever receives His testimony sets his seal to this, that God is true. For He whom God has sent utters the words of God, for He gives the Spirit without measure. The Father loves the Son and has given all things into His hand. Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life; whoever does not obey the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God remains on him.” (John 3:31-36, ESV)


约3:22-30,祂必兴旺我必衰微之一---施洗约翰的谦卑,

约3:31-36,祂必兴旺我必衰微之二---耶稣基督的超越!


首先需要说明的是,关于约3:31-36这一段经文是谁在说话有不同的解读。圣经原文并没有标点符号,标点符号是圣经翻译者或编辑者根据自己的理解添加上去的,为要帮助读者更好明白圣经。当你阅读不同版本圣经时会发现:在NIV,ESV,以及中文和合本的部分版本中,从约翰福音三章二十七节施洗约翰说话开始的引号终止于第三十节;在NASB,NKJV以及中文新译本等版本中,引号终止于第三十六节。


因此,这两种不同的引号标注显示对这段圣经的不同解读:第一种意见认为,施洗约翰的说话到三十节为止;第二种意见认为,施洗约翰的说话直到第三章的最后、即到三十六节为止。

笔者认为,约3:31-36这一段圣经,从用词习惯和神学思想上看,都更像是使徒约翰的论述。比如,“从天上来的,”“神所差来的,”“父爱子,”“信子的人有永生”等,尤其对比本书结束时约翰福音的写作目的(约20:31),都更符合使徒约翰的神学思想和约翰福音的连贯主题。


但有一点可以肯定,无论这段话出自谁的口,都是圣灵所默示永远不变的神的话语!

本文将依据这段圣经,尝试论证耶稣基督的超越!


一. 从天上来的(约3:31)


“从天上来的,是在万有之上。从地上来的,是属乎地,他所说的,也是属乎地。从天上来的,是在万有之上。”(约3:31)

“He who comes from above is above all. He who is of the earth belongs to the earth and speaks in an earthly way. He who comes from heaven is above all.” (John 3:31)

“从天上来的,是在万有之上。”直译“从上头来的 (from above),是在万有之上。” (The One who comes from above is above all.)


谁是“从天上来的?” 这个世界上每一个人都是从地上出生的,因此都是从地上来的。但有一个人例外,祂就是耶稣!


马太福音第一章记载耶稣基督的降生,指明耶稣的诞生应验旧约关于“童女怀孕生子”的预言:

“耶稣基督降生的事,记在下面。祂母亲马利亚已经许配了约瑟,还没有迎娶,马利亚就从圣灵怀了孕。…这一切的事成就,是要应验主藉先知所说的话,说,‘必有童女,怀孕生子,人要称祂的名为以马内利。’” (太1:18-23)

“This is how the birth of Jesus Christ came about: His mother Mary was pledged to be married to Joseph, but before they came together, she was found to be with child through the Holy Spirit. All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet: "The virgin will be with child and will give birth to a Son, and they will call Him Immanuel."” (John 1:18-23)


“以马内利”意为“神与我们同在,”显示耶稣基督的属性,祂是神与人同在的那一位。

路加福音把时间点更加提前得更早一些,天使向童女马利亚预告耶稣基督的降生:

“天使对她说,‘马利亚不要怕!你在神面前已经蒙恩了。你要怀孕生子,可以给祂起名叫耶稣。祂要为大,称为至高者的儿子。” (路1:30-32)

“But the angel said to her, ‘Do not be afraid, Mary, you have found favor with God. You will be with child and give birth to a Son, and you are to give Him the name Jesus. He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High.’” (Luke 1:30-32)


在耶稣尚且没有成胎以前,天使向马利亚预告说,她童女怀孕要生的儿子,将被称为是“至高者的儿子”---即神的儿子。

约翰福音更把时间点提到世界万物被造之前。

“太初有道,道与神同在,道就是神。…道成了肉身住在我们中间。” (约1:1;14)

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God…. The Word became flesh and made His dwelling among us.” (John 1:1;14)


“在万有之上”是什么意思?

“万物是借着祂造的。凡被造的,没有一样不是借着祂造的。” (“Through Him all things were made; without Him nothing was made that has been made.”)(约/John 1:3)


宇宙万物,无论是能看见的不能看见的,都是藉着耶稣基督造的,因此祂当然在万有之上。宇宙的直径以百亿光年计,但耶稣仍然在其之上。世界上还有哪个人具有和耶稣基督一样的资格,可以被称为是从上头来的、从天上来的?


“从地上来的,是属乎地,他所说的,也是属乎地。”(“The one who is from the earth belongs to the earth, and speaks as one from the earth. ”)(约/John 3:31)


人间的智者达人,无论有怎样的知识学问,无论有怎样的智慧才能,无论有怎样的科学成就,他们首先是从地上来的,他们都不是无限和完美的,他们所说的也都有一定的范围和局限。他们充其量在神普遍恩典的启示之下摸索出一些规律、学问、人生的经验等,即便这些学问或经验也都需要检验和修正。


施洗约翰虽然有神迹的出生,由父亲撒迦利亚和母亲以利沙伯在年老时所生,但他仍然是一个普通的人。他那有权能的讲道固然令人耳目一新,他所传讲的信息也是出自神,但他仍然是一个人,他仍然有自己的软弱和局限。


施洗约翰曾经对耶稣基督做过清晰有力的见证:“我曾看见圣灵,仿佛鸽子从天降下,住在祂的身上。我先前不认识祂。只是那差我来用水施洗的,对我说,你看见圣灵降下来,住在谁的身上,谁就是用圣灵施洗的。我看见了,就证明这是神的儿子。” (约1:32-34)

“Then John gave this testimony: "I saw the Spirit come down from heaven as a dove and remain on Him. I would not have known Him, except that the One who sent me to baptize with water told me, 'The man on whom you see the Spirit come down and remain is He who will baptize with the Holy Spirit.' I have seen and I testify that this is the Son of God."” (John 1:32-34)


然而,当约翰被希律王投入监狱,他对耶稣的身份却产生疑惑,便打发两个门徒去问耶稣说:“那将要来的是你吗?还是我们等候别人呢?” ("Are you the One who was to come, or should we expect someone else?")(太/Matt 11:3)


“从天上来的是在万有之上。” (The One who comes from heaven is above all.)

这是使徒约翰的习惯,他惯于用不同的词汇重复先前说过的话,旨在加深读者的理解和印象。虽然中文都翻译为“从天上来,” 但前后是用两个不同的希腊文词汇,所以前面应该译为“从上头来,” 后面应该译为“从天上来。”


二. 基督的见证 (约3:32)


“祂将所见所闻的见证出来,只是没有人领受祂的见证。”(约3:32)

“He bears witness to what He has seen and heard, yet no one receives His testimony.” (John 3:32)


假如我们认定这话是使徒约翰的评论,实际上,主耶稣自己早已说过同样的话。

“我实实在在地告诉你,我们所说的,是我们知道的,我们所见证的,是我们见过的。你们却不领受我们的见证。” (约3:11)

“I tell you the truth, we speak of what we know, and we testify to what we have seen, but still you people do not accept our testimony.” (John 3:11)


所谓见证就是讲所看见、所听见的讲说出来。耶稣基督是唯一依据自己的亲身经历来讲述真相或真理的人,因此祂所说的每一句话都是完全可以信赖的、绝对的真理。


耶稣基督有哪些独特的所见所闻的见证呢?


“那时,我在祂那里为工师,日日为祂所喜爱,常常在祂面前踊跃。” (箴8:30)

“Then I was beside Him as a master craftsman; And I was daily His delight, Rejoicing always before Him.” (Prov 8:30)


箴言第八章的智慧,究竟是智慧以拟人化的修辞手法在说话, 抑或是智慧本来就是耶稣基督的化身,存在有两种不同的解释。但无论哪种解释,有一点是肯定的,即三位一体的神欢喜快乐地共同参与宇宙万物的创造。(参:创1:1-2;西1:16)


关于人的创造,三一真神也有一个彼此的商议和计划:“我们要照着我们的形像,按着我们的样式造人…” (“Let us make man in our image, in our likeness.”) (创/Gen 1:26)


当撒旦在天上耶和华面前控告约伯时,那情景是没有人可以知道的,但耶稣基督历历在目地了然于胸,因为祂当时就在场,质问撒旦的就是祂。


“你曾用心察看我的仆人约伯没有?地上再没有人像他完全正直,敬畏神,远离恶事。”(伯1:8)

“Have you considered My servant Job? There is no one on earth like him; he is blameless and upright, a man who fears God and shuns evil.” (Job 1:8)


旧约以“耶和华的使者”身份出现的那一位,不是别人正是耶稣基督祂自己。

当耶稣基督责备不悔改的迦百农城的时,祂所说的是祂自己亲自经历的,因为当年正是祂降下硫磺火烧灭所多玛城的。


“迦百农阿,你已经升到天上,将来必坠落阴间。因为在你那里所行的异能,若行在所多玛,它还可以存到今日。”(太11:23)

“And you, Capernaum, will you be lifted up to the skies? No, you will go down to the depths. If the miracles that were performed in you had been performed in Sodom, it would have remained to this day.” (Matt 11:23)


当耶稣说,“我曾看见撒但从天上坠落,像闪电一样。” (“I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven.”)(路/Luke 10:18)那是真实的,因为是祂自己亲眼看见的。


耶稣基督所见证的一切都是真实可信的,因为祂就是真理本身。

“耶稣说,我就是道路,真理,生命。若不借着我,没有人能到父那里去。”(约14:6)

“Jesus answered, “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.”” (John 14:6)


“只是没有人领受祂的见证。”(“yet no one receives His testimony.” (约/John 3:32)

为什么世人不领受耶稣基督的见证?


一个原因是,世人因着眼界狭窄,理智局限,无法理解明白耶稣基督所讲的话,就像尼哥底母一样。“人已经老了,如何能重生呢?” (“How can a man be born when he is old?”)(约/John 3:4)


“我对你们说地上的事,你们尚且不信,若说天上的事,如何能信呢?” (约3:12)

“I have spoken to you of earthly things and you do not believe; how then will you believe if I speak of heavenly things?” (John 3:12)


在约翰福音中,反复出现如下情形:当耶稣与门徒或众人对话时,常常是耶稣在讲天上的事,众人在讲地上的事;耶稣说属灵的事,众人说属肉体的事,犹如对牛弹琴。被称作是“灵与肉”的对话。很多时候,连门徒也听不懂祂的话,何况世人呢?


“然而属血气的人不领会神圣灵的事,反倒以为愚拙。并且不能知道,因为这些事惟有属灵的人才能看透。”(林前2:14)

“The man without the Spirit does not accept the things that come from the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him, and he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually discerned.” (1 Cor 2:14)


另一个原因是,世人因着罪恶的本性,不仅不思悔改,反而抵挡神、抵挡真光。

“世人不能恨你们,却是恨我。因为我指证他们所作的事是恶的。” (约7:7)

“The world cannot hate you, but it hates me because I testify that its works are evil.” (John 7:7)


耶稣基督使死了四天的拉撒路从死里复活走出坟墓,“但祭司长商议连拉撒路也要杀了。因有好些犹太人,为拉撒路的缘故,回去信了耶稣。”(约12:10-11)

“So the chief priests made plans to kill Lazarus as well, for on account of him many of the Jews were going over to Jesus and putting their faith in Him.” (John 12:10-11)


三.证明神真实(约3:33)


“那领受祂见证的,就印上印,证明神是真的。” (约3:33)

“Whoever receives His testimony sets his seal to this, that God is true.” (John 3:33)


虽然绝大多数的人拒绝耶稣基督的见证,但任何时候都有一少部分人接受祂的见证,凡是接受祂见证的,就证明神是真实的。“就印上印,” 类似今天的遗嘱或公证,加上钢印,证明是真的。


耶稣基督的见证就是神的见证,耶稣基督的话就是神的话。相信耶稣基督就是相信神。


神自己曾经三次为耶稣基督作见证,分别在---

耶稣基督受洗时(Jesus’ Baptism),

耶稣登山变相时(Jesus’ Transfiguration),

耶稣荣耀进京时(Jesus’ Glorious Entry into Jerusalem)。


耶稣受洗:“从天上有声音说,这是我的爱子,我所喜悦的。” (And a voice from heaven said, "This is My Son, whom I love; with Him I am well pleased."”) (太/Matt 3:17)


登山变相:“这是我的爱子,我所喜悦的。你们要听祂。” (“This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased; listen to Him.”) (太/Matt 17:5)


荣耀进京:“我已经荣耀了我的名,还要再荣耀。” (“I have glorified it, and will glorify it again.”)(约/John 12:28)


因此,拒绝耶稣基督的见证,就是拒绝神的见证;接受耶稣基督的见证,就证明神是真实的。

“信神儿子的,就有这见证在他心里。不信神的,就是将神当作说谎的。因不信神为祂儿子作的见证。” (约一5:10)

“Anyone who believes in the Son of God has this testimony in his heart. Anyone who does not believe God has made him out to be a liar, because he has not believed the testimony God has given about his Son.”


你可以从自身经历见证神是真实的吗?


基督徒从自身生命的经历,可以见证圣经神的话是真实的,从自身在耶稣基督里生命的改变知道神是真实的。同时,回顾自己在不认识神时被魔鬼的谎言欺骗,就知道耶稣基督论到魔鬼说“他本来是说谎的,也是说谎之人的父”(he is a liar and the father of lies)的话是真实的。


领受耶稣见证的,就是信祂名的人。相信耶稣和不信耶稣,或者说,基督徒和非基督徒到底有什么不同呢?


基督徒承认自己是得罪神的罪人,非基督徒大多不承认这一点;

基督徒接受耶稣基督赦罪的救恩,非基督徒自认为不需要救恩;

基督徒在危险试炼患难中有盼望,非基督徒在危难中缺乏依靠;

基督徒有圣经指引可以智慧行事,非基督徒缺乏指引易走弯路;

基督徒有圣灵帮助参透属灵的事,非基督徒无法理解属灵事物;

基督徒可以读懂圣经即神的话语,非基督徒看不懂圣经的道理;

基督徒遇事通常作出准确的决定,非基督徒易缺乏常识性判断;

基督徒对任何事物有属天的眼光,非基督徒是完全不同的看法;

基督徒被称为是至高上帝的儿女,非基督徒没有这荣耀的身份;

基督徒最终的结局是荣耀的天家,非基督徒结局是永恒的分离!


基督徒和非基督徒对许多事情诸如财富、恋爱、婚姻、家庭、事业、名利、地位、成功、自由、罪恶等议题,都有完全不同的三观。当然最重要的是,他们各自最终完全不同的结局,即天堂和地狱、永生和永死的天壤之别!


四. 无限的圣灵(约3:34)


“神所差来的,就说神的话。因为神赐圣灵给祂,是没有限量的。”(约3:34)

“For He whom God has sent utters the words of God, for He gives the Spirit without measure.” (John 3:34)


“神所差来的,就说神的话。”耶稣基督是神所差来的,在约翰福音中重复39次,确认耶稣基督从神而来的神性,故此耶稣讲的话就是神的话。


神赐耶稣基督圣灵是无限量的。旧约时代,神也赐圣灵给祂的先知,但都是暂时的,有限的,为要完成特定的服侍和目的。施洗约翰在母腹中就被圣灵充满,他也靠圣灵的能力传道。但没有任何神的仆人被圣灵充满像耶稣基督一样,因为基督、圣灵和圣父一样分别是三位一体神的不同位格,是圣父、圣子、圣灵神性上完美的合一。


在耶稣基督的生平中,圣灵参与耶稣事工的全过程。


1. 基督将被圣灵充满有先知书的确切预言:

“耶和华的灵必住在祂身上,就是使祂有智慧和聪明的灵,谋略和能力的灵,知识和敬畏耶和华的灵。”(赛11:2

“The Spirit of the LORD will rest on Him--the Spirit of wisdom and of understanding, the Spirit of counsel and of power, the Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD.” (Isa 11:2)


2. 耶稣基督由圣灵感孕藉童女马利亚出生:

“天使回答说,圣灵要临到你身上,至高者的能力要荫庇你。因此所要生的圣者,必称为神的儿子。” (路1:35)

“The angel answered, "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the Holy One to be born will be called the Son of God.” (Luke 1:35)


3. 主耶稣受洗时圣灵像鸽子降临在祂身上:

“耶稣受了洗,随即从水里上来。天忽然为祂开了,祂就看见神的灵,仿佛鸽子降下,落在祂身上。” (太1:16)

“As soon as Jesus was baptized, He went up out of the water. At that moment heaven was opened, and He saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and lighting on Him.” (Matt 1:16)


4. 耶稣基督被圣灵引到旷野受魔鬼的试探:

“当时,耶稣被圣灵引到旷野,受魔鬼的试探。”(太4:1)

“Then Jesus was led by the Spirit into the desert to be tempted by the devil.” (Matt 4:1)


5. 耶稣基督行神迹奇事的能力出自于圣灵:

“耶稣满有圣灵的能力回到加利利,祂的名声就传遍了四方。” (路4:14)

“Jesus returned to Galilee in the power of the Spirit, and news about Him spread through the whole countryside.” (Luke 4:14)

“我若靠着神的灵赶鬼,这就是神的国临到你们了。” (太12:28)

“But if I drive out demons by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God has come upon you.” (Matt 12:28)


6. 耶稣基督的死而复活有圣灵的主动参与:

“何况基督借着永远的灵,将自己无瑕无疵献给神,祂的血岂不更能洗净你们的心,除去你们的死行,使你们事奉那永生神吗?” (来9:14)

“How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself without spot to God, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?!” (Heb 9:14)

“论到祂儿子,我主耶稣基督。按肉体说,是从大卫后裔生的。按圣善的灵说,因从死里复活,以大能显明是神的儿子。” (罗1:3-4)

“Concerning His Son Jesus Christ our Lord, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh, and declared to be the Son of God with power according to the Spirit of Holiness, by the resurrection from the dead.” (Rom 1:3-4)


7. 耶稣基督对门徒有许多关于圣灵的教训:

耶稣基督对门徒的教导,有许多是关乎圣灵的工作。比如门徒要受圣灵的洗,圣灵默示圣经,圣灵是神的礼物,门徒受逼迫是圣灵赐下当说的话,圣灵使罪人重生,圣灵如活水的江河,信徒在圣灵中敬拜神,圣灵是保惠师安慰和指导,圣灵使门徒明白真理,圣灵使人悔改、为罪为义为审判自己责备自己,祂差遣门徒之前让他们先受圣灵,吩咐门徒要奉圣父、圣子、圣灵的名为人施洗,要等候圣灵并得着圣灵的能力去作见证等。


因此,人间没有任何一个人如同主耶稣一样被圣灵无限量地充满!


五. 万有的权柄(约3:35)


“父爱子,已将万有交在祂手里。” (约3:35)

“The Father loves the Son and has given all things into His hand.” (John 3:35)

“父爱子,”就赐给祂天上地下所有的权柄。神赐给耶稣所有的权柄,正是父爱子的证据。


1. 耶稣基督赐人生命:

“父怎样叫死人起来,使他们活着,子也照样随自己的意思使人活着。” (约5:21)

“For just as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, even so the Son gives life to whom He is pleased to give it.” (John 5:21)


2. 耶稣基督审判世人:

“父不审判什么人,乃将审判的事全交与子。” (约5:22)

“Moreover, the Father judges no one, but has entrusted all judgment to the Son.” (John 5:22)


3. 耶稣基督赦罪权柄:

“但要叫你们知道人子在地上有赦罪的权柄。” (可2:10)

“But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins.” (Mark 2:10)


4. 耶稣是安息日的主:

“因为人子是安息日的主。” (太12:8)

“For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath.” (Matt 12:8)


5. 耶稣基督风浪的主:

“众人希奇说,这是怎样的人?连风和海也听从祂了?”(太8:27)

“The men were amazed and asked, "What kind of man is this? Even the winds and the waves obey Him!"” (Matt 8:27)


6. 耶稣基督医病赶鬼

“祂用权柄吩咐污鬼,连污鬼也听从了祂。” (可1:27)

“He even gives orders to evil spirits and they obey Him.” (Mark 1:7)


7. 耶稣基督使人复活

“说了这话,就大声呼叫说,‘拉撒路,出来!’ 那死人就出来了。”(约11:43-44)

“When He had said this, Jesus called in a loud voice, "Lazarus, come out!" The dead man came out.” (John 11:43-44)


8. 耶稣基督教训权柄:

“因为祂教训他们,正像有权柄的人,不像他们的文士。” (太7:29)

“Because He taught as one who had authority, and not as their teachers of the law.” (Matt 7:29)


9. 耶稣基督所有权柄:

“耶稣进前来,对他们说,天上,地下所有的权柄,都赐给我了。” (太28:18)

“Then Jesus came to them and said, "All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to Me.” (Matt 28:18)


10. 耶稣基督宇宙主宰:

“祂是神荣耀所发的光辉,是神本体的真像,常用祂权能的命令托住万有。” (来1:3)

“The Son is the radiance of God's glory and the exact representation of His being, sustaining all things by His powerful Word.” (Heb 1:3)


然而,拥有宇宙绝对权柄的主耶稣,当祂道成肉身来到世界,却甘愿服从于人间政治的、社会的、宗教的哪怕是罪恶的权柄,祂更是顺服圣父的权柄,为罪人死在十字架上,成就赦罪永生的救恩。


耶稣基督的绝对权柄对你我有何意义?我们当信靠祂、敬畏祂、顺服祂!


“信子的人有永生。不信子的人得不着永生,神的震怒常在他身上。”(约3:36)

“Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life, but whoever rejects the Son will not see life, for God's wrath remains on him.” (John 3:36)


约3:36相当于这段经文的总结性结论,与约20:31整本约翰福音写作的目的相一致,叫人因信耶稣基督就可以得永生,因为祂有赐生命的绝对权柄。


这也是圣经关于罪人如何得救最清楚简洁的经文,人永恒的结局取决于他如何对待神的儿子耶稣基督:“人有了神的儿子就有生命;没有神的儿子就没有生命。” (约一5:12)

“He who has the Son has life; he who does not have the Son of God does not have life.” (1 John 5:12)



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