约翰福音信息之五十五---我是好牧人

约10:11-18


旧约许多属灵伟人都曾是牧羊人,比如亚伯拉罕,以撒,雅各,摩西,大卫,先知阿摩司等。旧约圣经也多次论到神是群羊的牧人。比如以色列的先祖雅各曾称神为“一生牧养我直到今日的神。”诗人大卫更是写下优美的诗篇二十三篇,被称作是诗篇中的明珠。


“耶和华是我的牧者,我必不至缺乏。祂使我躺卧在青草地上,领我在可安歇的水边。祂使我的灵魂苏醒,为自己的名引导我走义路。我虽然行过死荫的幽谷,也不怕遭害。因为你与我同在。你的杖,你的竿,都安慰我。在我敌人面前,你为我摆设筵席。你用油膏了我的头,使我的福杯满溢。我一生一世必有恩惠慈爱随着我。我且要住在耶和华的殿中,直到永远。”(诗23:1-6)


“The LORD is my shepherd, I shall not be in want. He makes me lie down in green pastures, He leads me beside quiet waters. He restores my soul. He guides me in paths of righteousness for His name's sake. Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for you are with me; your rod and your staff, they comfort me. You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies. You anoint my head with oil, my cup overflows. Surely goodness and love will follow me all the days of my life, and I will dwell in the house of the LORD forever.”(Ps 23:1-6)


新约圣经记载,主耶稣自己说,“我是好牧人。”(“I Am the Good Shepherd.”)路加福音十五章主耶稣讲的“失羊”的比喻中,一个人有一百只羊丢了一只,就撇下九十九只,去寻找那只丢失了的羊。既找着了就扛在肩上,邀请邻舍欢喜庆祝,正是回应旧约以赛亚书的记述:


“祂必像牧人牧养自己的羊群,用膀臂聚集羊羔抱在怀中,慢慢引导那乳养小羊的。”(赛40:11)


“He tends His flock like a shepherd: He gathers the lambs in His arms and carries them close to His heart; He gently leads those that have young.”(Isa 40:11)


主耶稣说,“我是好牧人。”(约10:11)


"I am the good shepherd.”(John 10:11)


这是约翰福音中耶稣基督七个“我是”中的第四个宣称!


一.好牧人带领群羊


“祂按着名叫自己的羊,把羊领出来。既放出自己的羊来,就在前头走,羊也跟着祂,因为认得祂的声音。羊不跟着生人,因为不认得他的声音,必要逃跑。”(约10:3-5)


“He calls His own sheep by name and leads them out. When He has brought out all His own, He goes on ahead of them, and His sheep follow Him because they know His voice. But they will never follow a stranger; in fact, they will run away from him because they do not recognize a stranger's voice.”(John 10:3-5)


羊是很笨的一种动物,短视、固执、软弱、缺乏悟性,只顾低头吃眼前草,没有方向感,经常走迷路,无法辨别危险,无力保护自己。因着这些特征,羊群时刻需要牧人的引领和保护。


据2005年7约9日BBC报道,土耳其东部的凡省,发生1500只羊集体“跳崖自杀”事件。原来当日先是一只头羊只顾低头吃草,失足跳下15米高的悬崖,然后整个羊群一个接一个地跳下。最先跳下的400只羊羔被摔死,后跳的1000余只因为羊羔的身体在悬崖中不断堆积才得以幸免。可见,羊群缺乏牧人或牧人失职是何等危险。


牧人熟悉自己的羊群,祂按着名字叫自己的羊把羊领出来。


一个人的名字很重要。人们常有这样的经历,如果有人叫自己的名字,你会感到很亲切。但如果某日你听到有人在后面叫你的名字,你回头却不记得对方的名字,那是很难为情的事。笔者以前做过老师,我快速记住班上九十个同学每个人的名字,直到如今三十年过去,我仍然与那些同学们保持着终生的感情和友谊。服事教会以后,在还没有智能手机时全教会每个人的名字和电话号码都清晰地印在我脑海里,哪怕是新来的人我也会立刻记住他们的名字。我想,自己无意中效法了主耶稣:“祂按着名叫自己的羊。”


“既放出自己的羊来,就在前头走。”(约10:4)


牧人牧放群羊是在羊群的前头走,不是在后头赶。这样羊群就在后面跟着牧人,因为羊认得牧人的声音。如果牧人始终在羊群的前头走,前面所提到的羊群集体跳崖的事件也许就不会发生了。牧人在羊群的前头走,将羊群引领到青草地、溪水边,使羊可以“出入得草吃。”


牧人的另一个重要职责是保护羊群。


在圣经时代的中东地区,野外的牧场经常有野兽出没,会对羊群造成威胁。牧人手中的杖,一方面是将迷路的羊牵引回来,另一方面也是与野兽战斗保护羊群的武器。牧人生活的艰辛,以及保护羊群免受野兽的侵害,这在雅各和大卫的生平中均有记载。


“我在你家这二十年,你的母绵羊,母山羊没有掉过胎。你群中的公羊,我没有吃过。被野兽撕裂的,我没有带来给你,是我自己赔上。无论是白日,是黑夜,被偷去的,你都向我索要。我白日受尽干热,黑夜受尽寒霜,不得合眼睡着,我常是这样。”(创31:38-40)


“I have been with you for twenty years now. Your sheep and goats have not miscarried, nor have I eaten rams from your flocks. I did not bring you animals torn by wild beasts; I bore the loss myself. And you demanded payment from me for whatever was stolen by day or night. This was my situation: The heat consumed me in the daytime and the cold at night, and sleep fled from my eyes.”(Gen 31:38-40)


“大卫对扫罗说,‘你仆人为父亲放羊,有时来了狮子,有时来了熊,从群中衔一只羊羔去。我就追赶它,击打它,将羊羔从它口中救出来。它起来要害我,我就揪着它的胡子,将它打死。’”(撒上17:34-35)


“But David said to Saul, "Your servant has been keeping his father's sheep. When a lion or a bear came and carried off a sheep from the flock, I went after it, struck it and rescued the sheep from its mouth. When it turned on me, I seized it by its hair, struck it and killed it.””(1 Sam 17:34-35)


我们是主的群羊,主耶稣正是这样昼夜守候在我们身边,祂是好牧人,祂时刻引领我们,供应我们,喂养我们,保护我们。


“羊也跟着祂,因为认得祂的声音。羊不跟着生人,因为不认得他的声音。”(约10:3-5)


牧人认得自己的羊,羊也认得牧人的声音。


传说在澳大利亚有一个奇怪的案子。有一个人将另一个人告上法庭,说是对方偷了他的群羊,对方矢口否认。没有证人存在(正如圣经中的所罗门断案一样),这让法官很为难。最后,法官下令将那群羊(姑且算为证人Witnesses)带上法庭,要求两个人都对羊群发出口令,羊跟从谁,谁就是样的主人。


还有一个传说,是一个苏格兰人到中东旅游,一天正好碰见一个牧羊人牧放群羊。他请求牧人与自己换了衣服,并拿着牧人的杖,看群羊是否听他,结果羊群对他的口令当然是无动于衷。


所以,羊群认得牧人的声音。今天,如果我在教会突然讲起成功神学,自由派神学,恩典福音,因爱称义等,弟兄姐妹会立刻辨认出来,这不是来自圣经神的话语。


二. 好牧人为羊舍命


“我是好牧人,好牧人为羊舍命。若是雇工,不是牧人,羊也不是他自己的,他看见狼来,就撇下羊逃走。狼抓住羊,赶散了羊群。雇工逃走,因他是雇工,并不顾念羊。”(约10:11-13)


“I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep. The hired hand is not the shepherd who owns the sheep. So when he sees the wolf coming, he abandons the sheep and runs away. Then the wolf attacks the flock and scatters it. The man runs away because he is a hired hand and cares nothing for the sheep.”(John 10:11-13)


旧约时代牧人牧羊,羊为牧人死,因为羊羔是为了被杀献祭赎罪,为罪人遮盖罪,暂时免去神对罪恶的愤怒。


新约时代主耶稣是好牧人,好牧人为羊舍命。约翰福音第十章这段圣经,主耶稣四次提到祂来是要为羊舍命。


“我是好牧人,好牧人为羊舍命。”(约10:11)


“I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep.”(John 10:11)


“并且我为羊舍命。”(约10:15)


“And I lay down my life for the sheep.”(John 10:15)


“我父爱我,因我将命舍去。”(约10:17)


“The reason my Father loves me is that I lay down my life.”(John 10:17)


“没有人夺我的命去,是我自己舍的。”(约10:18)


“No one takes it from me, but I lay it down of my own accord.”(John 10:18)


耶稣基督道成肉身、降世为人的目的就是要为羊舍命,祂为我们罪人成为赎罪祭。


“何况基督借着永远的灵,将自己无瑕无疵献给神,祂的血岂不更能洗净你们的心,除去你们的死行,使你们事奉那永生神吗?”(来9:14)


“How much more, then, will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself unblemished to God, cleanse our consciences from acts that lead to death, so that we may serve the living God!”(Heb 9:14)


好牧人关心、喂养、保护群羊,因为羊群是属于祂的。雇工因为羊群不是他的,因此当危险来临,他就丢下羊群自己逃跑,使羊群被狼吞吃赶散。


如果你拥有一样东西与你租用一样东西是大不相同的。比如,你拥有一座房子或一辆新车,你会百般地保养爱惜,但如果是你租的房子或车子,你可能就不会小心翼翼,因为修理、维护、折旧等费用已经包含在你的租金中了。


好牧人拥有羊群,雇工并不拥有,只是为雇价而来,所以他并不关心羊群的益处。


以色列历史上有许多的假先知、假基督、邪恶的王,他们出于自私,使神的群羊持续遭受各样的苦待和伤害。


耶和华神曾籍先知以西结之口谴责以色列贪婪自私的牧人。


“主耶和华如此说,‘祸哉,以色列的牧人只知牧养自己。牧人岂不当牧养群羊吗?你们吃脂油,穿羊毛,宰肥壮的,却不牧养群羊。瘦弱的,你们没有养壮。有病的,你们没有医治。受伤的,你们没有缠裹。被逐的,你们没有领回。失丧的,你们没有寻找。但用强暴严严地辖制。因无牧人,羊就分散。既分散,便作了一切野兽的食物。我的羊在诸山间,在各高冈上流离,在全地上分散,无人去寻,无人去找。’… 主耶和华如此说,‘看哪,我必亲自寻找我的羊,将它们寻见。’”(结34:2-6;11)


“'This is what the Sovereign LORD says: Woe to the shepherds of Israel who only take care of themselves! Should not shepherds take care of the flock? You eat the curds, clothe yourselves with the wool and slaughter the choice animals, but you do not take care of the flock. You have not strengthened the weak or healed the sick or bound up the injured. You have not brought back the strays or searched for the lost. You have ruled them harshly and brutally. So they were scattered because there was no shepherd, and when they were scattered they became food for all the wild animals. My sheep wandered over all the mountains and on every high hill. They were scattered over the whole earth, and no one searched or looked for them…. "'For this is what the Sovereign LORD says: I myself will search for my sheep and look after them.’”(Ezek 34:2-6; 11)


盗贼来,为要偷窃、毁坏、杀害;雇工来,为要宰羊羔、吃脂油、穿羊毛。牧人来,祂带领羊群,保护羊群,喂养羊群,爱护羊群到一个地步,甚至为羊舍命。


“我是好牧人。我认识我的羊,我的羊也认识我。正如父认识我,我也认识父一样。并且我为羊舍命。”(约10:14-15)


“I Am the good shepherd; I know My sheep and My sheep know Me--just as the Father knows Me and I know the Father--and I lay down My life for the sheep.”(John 10:14-15)


主耶稣是好牧人,祂认识自己的羊,羊也认识祂。正像父认识主耶稣,主耶稣也认识父一样。


“认识”(Know)这个字的意思,不仅仅是“知道,”“了解,”它所表达的是一种深切的关系,即像夫妻之间的亲密关系一样。实际上,创世记第四章,亚当与夏娃同房的“同房”这个字,就是“认识、”“知道,”主耶稣甚至使用这个字描述信徒的永生。


“认识你独一的真神,并且认识你所差来的耶稣基督,这就是永生。”(约17:3)


“And this is eternal life, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom You have sent.”(John 17:3)


“认识”代表一种深切的爱之关系,主耶稣爱罪人到一个地步,为罪人舍身流血。


“惟有基督在我们还作罪人的时候为我们死,神的爱就在此向我们显明了。”(罗5:8)


“But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us.”(Rom 5:8)


所以,主耶稣认识自己的羊,代表主耶稣对信徒个别的关切、保守和爱护;羊也认识主耶稣,代表信徒对主耶稣真正的知道、顺服和尊崇;这是一种双向的彼此深切相爱的关系。这种相爱的关系以圣父爱主耶稣、主耶稣顺服父神的亲爱关系为榜样。


三. 好牧人聚拢羊群


“我另外有羊,不是这圈里的。我必须领他们来,他们也要听我的声音。并且要合成一群,归一个牧人了。”(约10:16)


“And other sheep I have which are not of this fold; them also I must bring, and they will hear My voice; and there will be one flock and one shepherd.”(John 10:16)


凡是属于主耶稣的羊,主一个也不失落,祂要把他们聚在一起,归于一个羊群,归于一个牧人。显然,“这圈里的”羊指犹太信徒,“不是这圈里的”羊指外邦信徒,主耶稣要把所有羊群聚集在一起,成为一个羊群,归于一个牧人---好牧人耶稣基督。


“因祂使我们和睦,(或:因祂是我们的和睦)将两下合而为一,拆毁了中间隔断的墙。”(弗2:14)


“For He Himself is our peace, who has made both one, and has broken down the middle wall of separation.”(Eph 2:14)


“我另外有羊,”显明主耶稣拯救世人的伟大使命,祂不单是为犹太人死,也是为全世界的人死,从而拯救所有愿意相信接受祂的人进入祂的羊圈---祂普世的教会。


“夜间主在异象中对保罗说,‘不要怕,只管讲,不要闭口。有我与你同在,必没有人下手害你。因为在这城里(哥林多)我有许多的百姓。’”(徒18:9-10)


“Now the Lord spoke to Paul in the night by a vision, "Do not be afraid, but speak, and do not keep silent; "for I am with you, and no one will attack you to hurt you; for I have many people in this city."”(Acts 18:9-10)


主耶稣的拯救今日仍在持续。


一个羊群、一个牧人,显明各国、各族、各方、各民,无论种族、肤色、年龄、性别,在耶稣基督里都归于一。


“你们受洗归入基督的,都是披戴基督了。并不分犹太人,希利尼人,自主的,为奴的,或男或女。因为你们在基督耶稣里都成为一了。”(加3:27-28)


“For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ. There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus.”(Gal 3:27-28)


一个羊群、一个牧人,也回应主耶稣自己为信徒祈求合一的祷告。


“我不但为这些人祈求,也为那些因他们的话信我的人祈求。使他们都合而为一。正如你父在我里面,我在你里面,使他们也在我们里面。叫世人可以信你差了我来。你所赐给我的荣耀,我已赐给他们,使他们合而为一,像我们合而为一。我在他们里面,你在我里面,使他们完完全全的合而为一。”(约17:20-23)


“"I do not pray for these alone, but also for those who will believe in Me through their word; "that they all may be one, as You, Father, are in Me, and I in You; that they also may be one in Us, that the world may believe that You sent Me. "And the glory which You gave Me I have given them, that they may be one just as We are one: "I in them, and You in Me; that they may be made perfect in one.”(John 17:20-23)


合一不是今日世界所说的“包容,接纳,”乃是合一于同一个好牧人耶稣基督,聆听祂的声音。


“他们也要听我的声音。并且要合成一群,归一个牧人了。”(约10:16)


“And they will hear My voice; and there will be one flock and one shepherd.”(John 10:16)


主耶稣的声音,就是主的真道,就是圣经中神无误的话语。草必枯干,花必凋残,唯有神的话必永远立定,圣经神的话是一切事物量度的标杆。


我们就是主耶稣的羊,我们承认自己的愚钝、固执、短视、软弱,我们需要主耶稣的引领、眷顾、呵护,我们需要顺服、遵从、感谢主耶稣的带领,我们需要圣经神话语的喂养,我们需要在耶稣基督里、在主的真道里完全的合一,正如主耶稣与父神完全的合一一样。我们感谢神有一位为我们舍命的救主做我们的好牧人。


最后,让我们看看约翰福音第十章一段重要经文所传递的福音信息。


“我父爱我,因我将命舍去,好再取回来。没有人夺我的命去,是我自己舍的。我有权柄舍了,也有权柄取回来。这是我从我父所受的命令。”(约10:17-18)


“Therefore My Father loves Me, because I lay down My life that I may take it again. No one takes it from Me, but I lay it down of Myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This command I have received from My Father.”(John 10:17-18)


约10:18包含明显的福音信息,是主耶稣自己宣讲祂自己所成就的伟大福音,是主耶稣自己传讲“耶稣基督并祂钉十字架”(林前2:2)的永恒真理。


约10:18这节经文有三个重要动词:“夺”、“舍”、“取”;世人的命都是被“罪”夺去的, 但主耶稣的命不是被夺去的,没有任何人有能力夺去祂的命;祂的命是祂自己甘愿舍的;而且祂有权柄舍了,也有权柄再取回来。


约10:18这节经文预表主耶稣的死而复活:“舍了”代表主耶稣在十字架上的舍身流血;“取回来”代表祂的死而复活。回应使徒保罗关于福音的定义。


“弟兄们,我如今把先前所传给你们的福音,告诉你们知道。…我当日所领受又传给你们的,第一,就是基督照圣经所说,为我们的罪死了。而且埋葬了。又照圣经所说,第三天复活了。”(林前15:1-4)


“Moreover, brethren, I declare to you the gospel which I preached to you, …For I delivered to you first of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, and that He was buried, and that He rose again the third day according to the Scriptures.” (1 Cor 15:1-4)


“耶稣被交给人,是为我们的过犯,复活是为叫我们称义。”(罗4:25)


“He was delivered over to death for our sins and was raised to life for our justification.”(Rom 4:25)


“这是我从我父所受的命令,”显示救恩是神“从创立世界以前”(弗1:4)已经为世人预备的,乃是在耶稣基督里的拣选。

约10:18再次显明主耶稣是为羊舍命的好牧人。同时显明三位一体的神共同参与基督的死而复活,成就旷世伟大无比赦罪永生的救恩。(来9:14;徒2:24;约10:18;彼前3:18)


“何况基督借着永远的灵,将自己无瑕无疵献给神,祂的血岂不更能洗净你们的心,除去你们的死行,使你们事奉那永生神吗?”(来9:14)


“How much more, then, will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself unblemished to God, cleanse our consciences from acts that lead to death, so that we may serve the living God!”(Heb 9:14)

“没有人夺我的命去,是我自己舍的。我有权柄舍了,也有权柄取回来。这是我从我父所受的命令。” (约10:18)(基督使自己复活)


“No one takes it from Me, but I lay it down of Myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This command I have received from My Father.”(John 10:18)


“神却将死的痛苦解释了,叫祂复活。因为祂原不能被死拘禁。” (徒2:24)(父神使基督复活)


“But God raised Him from the dead, freeing Him from the agony of death, because it was impossible for death to keep its hold on Him.”(Acts 2:24)


“因基督也曾一次为罪受苦(受死),就是义的代替不义的,为要引我们到神面前。按着肉体说祂被治死。按着灵性说祂复活了。”(彼前3:18)(圣灵使基督复活)


“For Christ died for sins once for all, the righteous for the unrighteous, to bring you to God. He was put to death in the body but made alive by the Spirit.” (1 Pet 3:18)


感谢赞美主耶稣,祂“是好牧人,好牧人为羊舍命!”(约10:11)祂是我永远的救主!


感谢主

任运生牧师

主后二零二一年九月十日