新约圣经导读(九)---哥林多前书概论

January 9, 2018

一. 作者:保罗

 

1. 作者自称为使徒保罗(1:1);

2. 书中提到保罗的内证(1:12-14;3:4-5;22;16:21)

3. 本书对教会的实际问题和教义的论述符合保罗书信的特色;

4. 早期教父(如哥利免,A.D 95)都公认此书作者为保罗。

 

二. 日期:A.D. 55-56

 

1. 保罗第二次宣教旅程在哥林多停留一年六个月(徒18:11);

2. 从圣经外的历史得知,迦流做亚该亚方伯是从A.D. 51开始(徒18:12);

3. 保罗第三次旅程,在以弗所停留两年之久(徒19:10),此间保罗写了哥林多前书。

 

三. 地点:以弗所(林前16:8)

 

四. 对象:哥林多教会

 

五. 背景:

 

哥林多乃亚该亚省会,是个发达的商业中心。哥林多人生活奢华、道德败坏、偶像充斥。哥林多教会是保罗在第二次旅行布道时建立(徒18:1-11),亚波罗和其他同工也在这里传道(徒18:27-28;19:1;林前3:6)。哥林多教会恩赐丰富,知识一样也不缺,工人也不少,但教会里却充满纷争、淫乱、争讼及教义上的各样混乱,显示哥林多教会的不成熟、不圣洁、不合一,因此保罗特意写此信以纠正各样混乱,并阐述澄清有关教义。

如果以弗所书是有关普世教会的建造;哥林多前书是有关地方教会的健全!

 

六. 目的:

 

1. 纠正哥林多教会中的偏差和混乱;

2. 回答教会出现的一些实践性问题;

3. 阐明有关恩赐及复活等教义问题;

4. 请教会关心耶路撒冷贫困的圣徒。

 

七. 主题:在基督里成圣(或:福音真理在教会实际中的应用)。

 

八.特征:

 

1. 本书篇幅仅次于罗马书;

2. 本书的教义涉及:十字架、福音、复活、圣餐等;

3. 本书涉及许多实际问题,因此被称为“十字架与社会”的书卷;

4. 本书关键字节:身体、弟兄、教会、十字架、省察、圣洁、圣徒、权柄、知道、复活、圣灵、属灵、不信、智慧等;

5. 本书的护教特色明显:较早成书,作者为使徒,见证主基督的复活,许多见证人健在,而且有两个证人曾经是不信的:耶稣的兄弟雅各和曾逼迫基督徒的扫罗;

6. 基督是教会的头,但哥林多教会却使主的名受亏损:属世的智慧蔑视主名,纷争羞辱主名,淫乱败坏主名,偶像污秽主名,混乱损害主名,异端否认主名。同时保罗藉婚姻的关系预表主,藉圣餐宣告主,藉相爱彰显主。

 

九.结构纲要

 

I. 引言(1:1-9)

      A. 问安(1:1-3)

      B. 感恩(1:4-9)

II. 教会的问题(1:10-11:34)

    A.纷争的问题(1:10-4:21)

   1.   纷争的存在(1:10-17)

   2.   纷争的原因(1:18-4:5)

1)        信息的误解(1:18-3:4)

2)        事工的误解(3:5-4:5)

   3.   纷争的医治(4:6-21)

B. 乱伦的问题(5:1-13)

C. 争讼的问题(6:1-11)

D. 淫乱的问题(6:12-20)

E. 婚姻的问题(7:1-40)

   1.       结婚与未婚(7:1-9)

   2.       结婚与离婚(7:10-24)

   3.       婚姻与服侍(7:25-38)

   4.       再婚与寡居(7:39-40)

F. 祭物的问题(8:1-10:33)

   1.       弟兄相爱(8:1-13)

   2.       使徒权柄(9:1-27)

   3.       祭拜偶像(10:1-33)

G.聚会的问题(11:1-34)

   1.       关于蒙头(11:1-16)

   2.       关于主餐(11:17-34)

III. 教义的问题(12:1-15:58)

       A. 关于属灵恩赐(12:1-14:40)

   1.       基本认识(12:1-31)

   2.       爱的篇章(13:1-13)

   3.       运用恩赐(14:1-40)

B. 关于基督复活(15:1-58)

   1.       基督的复活(15:1-19)

   2.       信徒的复活(15:20-58)

IV. 结语(16:1-24)

       A.奉献捐助(16:1-4)

       B.个人请求(16:5-12)

       C.劝勉问安(16:13-24)

 

十.哥林多前书的主要内容:

  1. 保罗如何称呼哥林多教会的信徒?(1:1-2)

  2. 保罗为哥林多教会哪些事情感恩?(1:4-9)

  3. 哥林多教会信徒纷争结党的原因是什么?(1:10-17)

  4. 十字架的道理为什么在世人看来是愚拙的?(1:18)

  5. 什么是神的智慧?神的智慧与人的智慧有何不同?(1:19-25)

  6. 神拣选什么样的人?(1:26-31)

  7. 保罗“只知道耶稣基督并他钉十字架”是什么意思?(2:1-5)

  8. 神奥秘的智慧是什么?(2:6-10)

  9. 属灵的人与属血气的人有何不同?如何才能成为一个属灵的人?(2:11-16)

  10. 属灵与属肉体有何区别?人如何与神同工?(3:1-9)

  11. 用金银宝石和草木禾秸建造的工程有何不同?(3:10-15)

  12. 什么是神的殿?(3:16-17)

  13. 如何理解“人不可自欺”?(3:18-23)

  14. 保罗如何回应人的论断?保罗服侍的态度如何?(4:1-5)

  15. 信徒应当如何对待神的仆人?(4:1-5)

  16. 林前4:7对你有何启发?

  17. 信徒成为一台戏,给我们什么警示?(4:8-9)

  18. 保罗受了哪些苦楚?他的态度如何?(4:10-17)

  19. “神的国不在乎言语乃在乎权能”如何理解?(4:18-21)

  20. 教会如何处理信徒犯罪?教会如何对待世界的罪?信徒应如何对待罪?(5:1-13)

  21. 信徒相争向外人求审,错在何处?(6:1-8)

  22. 哪些人不能承受神的国?如何才能承受神的国?(6:9-11)

  23. 为什么淫行是得罪自己身子的严重犯罪?(6:12-20)

  24. 夫妻应当如何相待?(7:1-7)

  25. 婚娶和再嫁的原则是什么?(7:8-9;39-40)

  26. 关于离婚,保罗给出什么原则?(7:10-24)

  27. 婚嫁与服侍的关系如何?如何看待独身?(7:25-38)

  28. “知识叫人自高自大”是什么意思?(8:1-3)

  29. 信徒可以吃祭偶像之物吗?为什么?(8:4-13)

  30. 神的工人有靠福音养生的权柄吗?教会和信徒应当如何对待传道人?(9:1-18)

  31. 保罗“向什么人就做什么人”如何值得信徒的效法?(9:19-23)

  32. 保罗引用体育竞赛作比喻是要说明什么?(9:24-27)

  33. 旧约以色列的历史如何成为今日信徒的鉴戒?(10:1-12)

  34. 如何面对试探?(10:13)

  35. 信徒为什么要戒除拜偶像的事?(10:14-22)

  36. 信徒有怎样的自由?这自由如何成为信徒行事为人的原则?(10:23-33)

  37. 男女被造的地位和关系是怎样的?妇女蒙头是什么意思?(11:1-16)

  38. 圣餐的意义是什么?领受圣餐当有什么样的态度?(11:17-34)

  39. 恩赐从何而来?你对属灵恩赐有何认识?(12:1-11)

  40. 提到恩赐,保罗用身子和肢体作比喻的意义何在?(12:12-31)

  41. 恩赐与爱的关系如何?什么是爱?保罗爱的篇章是怎样的美丽?(13:1-13)

  42. 恩赐的功用是什么?教会该如何使用弟兄姐妹不同的恩赐?(14:1-25)

  43. 崇拜当有什么样的秩序?姐妹在教会中的地位是什么?(14:26-40)

  44. 福音是什么?(15:1-11)

  45. 基督复活对基督徒的信仰为什么重要?(15:12-19)

  46. 复活的顺序是什么?(15:20-28)

  47. 复活的盼望对信徒的人生观和实际生活有何意义和影响?(15:29-34)

  48. 试将首先的亚当与末后的亚当做对比。(15:35-49)

  49. 复活的盼望如何激励信徒多做主工?(15:50-58)

  50. 基督徒奉献的原则和意义是什么?(16:1-4)

  51. 保罗给哥林多信徒哪些最后的勉励?(16:5-24)

十一.哥林多前书经句集锦:

  1. 因为十字架的道理,在那灭亡的人为愚拙。在我们得救的人却为神的大能。(林前1:18)For the message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God.

  2. 世人凭自己的智慧,既不认识神,神就乐意用人所当作愚拙的道理,拯救那些信的人。这就是神的智慧了。(林前1:21)For since in the wisdom of God the world through its wisdom did not know him, God was pleased through the foolishness of what was preached to save those who believe.

  3. 弟兄们哪,可见你们蒙召的,按着肉体有智慧的不多,有能力的不多,有尊贵的也不多。神却拣选了世上愚拙的,叫有智慧的羞愧。又拣选了世上软弱的,叫那强壮的羞愧。神也拣选了世上卑贱的,被人厌恶的,以及那无有的,为要废掉那有的。使一切有血气的,在神面前一个也不能自夸。(林前1:26-29) Brothers, think of what you were when you were called. Not many of you were wise by human standards; not many were influential; not many were of noble birth. But God chose the foolish things of the world to shame the wise; God chose the weak things of the world to shame the strong. He chose the lowly things of this world and the despised things--and the things that are not--to nullify the things that are, so that no one may boast before him.

  4. 因为我曾定了主意,在你们中间不知道别的,只知道耶稣基督,并他钉十字架。(林前2:2)For I resolved to know nothing while I was with you except Jesus Christ and him crucified.

  5. 如经上所记,神为爱他的人所预备的,是眼睛未曾看见,耳朵未曾听见,人心也未曾想到的。(林前2:9)However, as it is written: "No eye has seen, no ear has heard, no mind has conceived what God has prepared for those who love him."

  6. 人不可自欺。你们中间若有人,在这世界自以为有智慧,倒不如变作愚拙,好成为有智慧的。(林前3:18)Do not deceive yourselves. If any one of you thinks he is wise by the standards of this age, he should become a "fool" so that he may become wise.

  7. 使你与人不同的是谁呢?你有什么不是领受的呢?若是领受的,为何自夸,仿佛不是领受的呢?(林前4:7)For who makes you different from anyone else? What do you have that you did not receive? And if you did receive it, why do you boast as though you did not?

  8. 你们要逃避淫行。人所犯的,无论什么罪,都在身子以外。惟有行淫的,是得罪自己的身子。(林前6:18)Flee from sexual immorality. All other sins a man commits are outside his body, but he who sins sexually sins against his own body.

  9. 知识是叫人自高自大,惟有爱心能造就人。(林前8:1)Knowledge puffs up, but love builds up.

  10. 向软弱的人,我就作软弱的人,为要得软弱的人。向什么样的人,我就作什么样的人。无论如何,总要救些人。(林前9:22)To the weak I became weak, to win the weak. I have become all things to all men so that by all possible means I might save some.

  11. 所以我奔跑,不像无定向的。我斗拳,不像打空气的。我是攻克己身,叫身服我。恐怕我传福音给别人,自己反被弃绝了。(林前9:26-27)Therefore I do not run like a man running aimlessly; I do not fight like a man beating the air. No, I beat my body and make it my slave so that after I have preached to others, I myself will not be disqualified for the prize.

  12. 你们所遇见的试探,无非是人所能受的。神是信实的,必不叫你们受试探过于所能受的。在受试探的时候,总要给你们开一条出路,叫你们能忍受得住。(林前10:13)No temptation has seized you except what is common to man. And God is faithful; he will not let you be tempted beyond what you can bear. But when you are tempted, he will also provide a way out so that you can stand up under it.

  13. 我们所祝福的杯,岂不是同领基督的血吗?我们所掰开的饼,岂不是同领基督的身体吗?(林前10:16)Is not the cup of thanksgiving for which we give thanks a participation in the blood of Christ? And is not the bread that we break a participation in the body of Christ?

  14. 所以你们或吃或喝,无论作什么,都要为荣耀神而行。(林前10:31)So whether you eat or drink or whatever you do, do it all for the glory of God.

  15. 我当日传给你们的,原是从主领受的,就是主耶稣被卖的那一夜,拿起饼来,祝谢了,就掰开,说,这是我的身体,为你们舍的(舍有古卷作掰开)。你们应当如此行,为的是记念我。饭后,也照样拿起杯来,说,这杯是用我的血所立的新约。你们每逢喝的时候,要如此行,为的是记念我。(林前11:23-25)For I received from the Lord what I also passed on to you: The Lord Jesus, on the night he was betrayed, took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, "This is my body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of me." In the same way, after supper he took the cup, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood; do this, whenever you drink it, in remembrance of me."

  16. 就如身子是一个,却有许多肢体。而且肢体虽多,仍是一个身子。基督也是这样。(林前12:12)The body is a unit, though it is made up of many parts; and though all its parts are many, they form one body. So it is with Christ.

  17. 爱是恒久忍耐,又有恩慈。爱是不嫉妒。爱是不自夸。不张狂。不作害羞的事。不求自己的益处。不轻易发怒。不计算人的恶。不喜欢不义。只喜欢真理。凡事包容。凡事相信。凡事盼望。凡事忍耐。爱是永不止息。(林前13:4-8)Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres. Love never fails.

  18. 如今常存的有信,有望,有爱,这三样,其中最大的是爱。(林前13:13)And now these three remain: faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love.

  19. 我当日所领受又传给你们的,第一,就是基督照圣经所说,为我们的罪死了。而且埋葬了。又照圣经所说,第三天复活了。(林前15:3-4)For what I received I passed on to you as of first importance: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures.

  20. 然而我今日成了何等人,是蒙神的恩才成的。(林前15:10)But by the grace of God I am what I am.

  21. 我们若靠基督,只在今生有指望,就算比众人更可怜。(林前15:19)If only for this life we have hope in Christ, we are to be pitied more than all men.

  22. 你们不要自欺。滥交是败坏善行。(林前15:33)Do not be misled: "Bad company corrupts good character."

  23. 经上也是这样记着说,首先的人亚当,成了有灵的活人。末后的亚当,成了叫人活的灵。(林前15:45)So it is written: "The first man Adam became a living being"; the last Adam, a life-giving spirit.

  24. 死啊,你得胜的权势在哪里?死啊,你的毒钩在哪里?(林前15:55)"Where, O death, is your victory? Where, O death, is your sting?"

  25. 所以我亲爱的弟兄们,你们务要坚固不可摇动,常常竭力多作主工,因为知道你们的劳苦,在主里面不是徒然的。(林前15:58)Therefore, my dear brothers, stand firm. Let nothing move you. Always give yourselves fully to the work of the Lord, because you know that your labor in the Lord is not in vain.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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