新约圣经导读(二十二)---雅各书概论

January 9, 2018

一. 作者:雅各(1:1)

 

新约中有四个雅各:西庇太的儿子、约翰的哥哥雅各(使徒)(可1:19);亚勒腓的儿子雅各(使徒)(可3:18)、犹大(使徒,非出卖耶稣的犹大)的父亲雅各(路6:16)、主耶稣的弟弟雅各(可6:3;加1:19)。

 

本书的作者为主耶稣的弟弟雅各:

 

1. 雅各在主耶稣复活前不信主(约7:5);

2. 耶稣复活后曾向雅各单独显现(林前15:7);

3. 保罗曾到耶路撒冷造访他,称他为主的弟弟(加1:18-19);

4. 雅各被称为教会的柱石(加2:9;);

5. 雅各曾主持耶路撒冷大会(徒15:13-19);

6. 他在新约被简称为雅各(加2:9;12;徒12:17;15:13;21:18);

7. 他的风格与主耶稣相似,比如多用比喻;

8. 本书内容与主耶稣的登山宝训相似;

9. 本书内容与徒15内容相似;

10.综上所述,只有耶稣的弟弟雅各,才有身份、权柄和在教会中的地位写作本书,早期教父也大都公认可作外证。

 

二. 日期:45-48 A.D.(耶路撒冷大会之前)或 62-64 A.D.(雅各殉道之前)

 

三. 地点:耶路撒冷

 

四. 目的:

 

1. 安慰坚固受逼迫的信徒(1:2-4);

2. 论述真正的信仰和虔诚(1:27);

3. 真信心和好行为的关系(2:14-26)。

 

五.主旨:信心与行为的对称。

 

六.特色:

 

1. 犹太色彩浓厚:“初熟的果子”(1:18)、“会堂”(2:2)、“我们的祖宗亚伯拉罕”(2:21)、“地狱”(3:6)、“万军之主”(5:4)等;

2. 强调信仰与实践、信心与行为相对称的生活方式;

3. 与旧约智慧书的格言及写作方式相似,故本书被称为新约的箴言书;

4. 本书与马太福音的登山宝训有许多相似之处:

雅1:2--太5:10-12;雅1:4—太5:48;雅1:5;5:15—太7:7-12;雅1:9—太5:3;雅1:20—太5:22;雅2:13—太5:7;6:14-15;雅2:14-16—太7:21-23;雅3:17-18—太5:9;雅4:4—太6:24;雅4:10—太5:3-5;雅4:11—太7:1-2;雅5:2-3—太6:19-20;雅5:10-太5:12;雅5:12—太5:33-37.

5. 本书运用许多自然景象和画面:

“海中的波浪”(1:6);“被风吹动”(1:6);“草上的花”(1:10);“太阳、热风、草枯干、花凋谢”(1:11);“众光、影儿”(1:17);“初熟的果子”(1:18);“嚼环”(3:3);“船、舵、大风催逼”(3:4);“火、森林”(3:5-6);“各类的走兽、飞禽、昆虫、水族”(3:7);“害死人的毒气”(3:8);“泉源、甜水、苦水”(3:11);“无花果、橄榄、葡萄、咸水”(3:12);“栽种”(3:18);“一片云雾”(4:14);“虫子咬”(5:2);“金银都长了锈”(5:3);“收割庄稼、声音呼叫”(5:4);“农夫忍耐、秋雨春雨”(5:7);“不要下雨、降下雨来”(5:17-18);“地也生出土产”(5:18)

6. “弟兄们”重复十九次,故为劝勉的书信,注重实践性和伦理性,较少教义和神学;

7. 在普通书信中,雅各书注重伦理性;彼得前后书注重经验性;约翰一二三书注重造就性;犹大书注重激发性。

 

七.结构纲要

 

(一)启语与问安(1:1)

(二)试炼与试探(1:2-18)

(三)听道与行道(1:19-27)

(四)偏心与待人(2:1-13)

(五)信心与行为(2:14-26)

(六)约束口与舌(3:1-12)

(七)两类的智慧(3:13-18)

(八)属神与属世(4:1-12)

(九)莫为明日夸(4:13-17)

(十)勿为富不仁(5:1-6)

(十一)患难与忍耐(5:7-12)

(十二)信心与祷告(5:13-20)

 

八.保罗书信与雅各书信的对比:

 

1. 保罗书信包含基督教的伟大教义;雅各书信是基督徒生活行为的指南;

2. 保罗书信论基督在天为我们的义;雅各书信论基督在地教我们要完全;

3. 保罗强调信心的根源--接受福音;雅各则强调信心的果子--行出福音;

4. 保罗强调信要信徒“在好事上富足”(提前6:18),雅各强调行但要信徒“在信上富足。”(雅2:5)

5. 信心的公式---保罗:称义=信心-行为(弗2:8-9,你们得救是本乎恩也因着信…不是出于行为,免得有人自夸);雅各:信心=称义+行为(雅2:26,身体没有灵魂是死的,信心没有行为也是死的)。

 

九.雅各书优美经句集锦

 

1. “我的弟兄们,你们落在百般试炼中,都要以为大喜乐。因为知道你们的信心经过试验就生忍耐。但忍耐也当成功,使你们成全完备,毫无缺欠。”(雅1:2-4)

Consider it pure joy, my brothers, whenever you face trials of many kinds, because you know that the testing of your faith develops perseverance. Perseverance must finish its work so that you may be mature and complete, not lacking anything.

 

2. 你们中间若有缺少智慧的,应当求那厚赐与众人,也不斥责人的神,主就必赐给他。(雅1:5)

If any of you lacks wisdom, he should ask God, who gives generously to all without finding fault, and it will be given to him.

 

3. 人被试探,不可说,我是被神试探。因为神不能被恶试探,他也不试探人。(雅1:13)

When tempted, no one should say, "God is tempting me." For God cannot be tempted by evil, nor does he tempt anyone.

 

4. 各样美善的恩赐,和各样全备的赏赐,都是从上头来的。从众光之父那里降下来的。在他并没有改变,也没有转动的影儿。(雅1:17)

Every good and perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of the heavenly lights, who does not change like shifting shadows.

 

5. 我亲爱的弟兄们,这是你们所知道的。但你们各人要快快地听,慢慢地说,慢慢地动怒。因为人的怒气,并不成就神的义。(雅1:19-20)

My dear brothers, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, for man's anger does not bring about the righteous life that God desires.

 

6. 只是你们要行道,不要单单听道,自己欺哄自己。(雅1:22)

Do not merely listen to the word, and so deceive yourselves. Do what it says.

 

7. 在神我们的父面前,那清洁没有玷污的虔诚,就是看顾在患难中的孤儿寡妇,并且保守自己不沾染世俗。(雅1:27)

Religion that God our Father accepts as pure and faultless is this: to look after orphans and widows in their distress and to keep oneself from being polluted by the world.

 

8. 我的弟兄们,你们信奉我们荣耀的主耶稣基督,便不可按着外貌待人。(雅2:1)

My brothers, as believers in our glorious Lord Jesus Christ, don't show favoritism.

 

9. 经上记着说,要爱人如己。你们若全守这至尊的律法才是好的。(雅2:8)

If you really keep the royal law found in Scripture, "Love your neighbor as yourself," you are doing right.

 

10. 我的弟兄们,若有人说,自己有信心,却没有行为,有什么益处呢?这信心能救他吗?(雅2:14)

What good is it, my brothers, if a man claims to have faith but has no deeds? Can such faith save him?

 

11. 你信神只有一位,你信的不错。鬼魔也信,却是战惊。(雅2:19)

You believe that there is one God. Good! Even the demons believe that--and shudder.

 

12. 身体没有灵魂是死的,信心没有行为也是死的。(雅2:26)

As the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without deeds is dead.

 

13. 原来我们在许多事上都有过失。若有人在话语上没有过失,他就是完全人,也能勒住自己的全身。(雅3:2)

We all stumble in many ways. If anyone is never at fault in what he says, he is a perfect man, able to keep his whole body in check.

 

14. 惟独舌头没有人能制伏,是不止息的恶物,满了害死人的毒气。(雅3:8)

but no man can tame the tongue. It is a restless evil, full of deadly poison.

 

15. 我们用舌头颂赞那为主为父的,又用舌头咒诅那照着神形像被造的人。颂赞和咒诅从一个口里出来,我的弟兄们,这是不应当的。(雅3:9-10)

With the tongue we praise our Lord and Father, and with it we curse men, who have been made in God's likeness. Out of the same mouth come praise and cursing. My brothers, this should not be.

 

16. 惟独从上头来的智慧,先是清洁,后是和平,温良柔顺,满有怜悯,多结善果,没有偏见,没有假冒。(雅3:17)

But the wisdom that comes from heaven is first of all pure; then peace-loving, considerate, submissive, full of mercy and good fruit, impartial and sincere.

 

17.你们得不着,是因为你们不求。你们求也得不着,是因为你们妄求,要浪费在你们的宴乐中。(雅4:2-3)

You do not have, because you do not ask God. When you ask, you do not receive, because you ask with wrong motives, that you may spend what you get on your pleasures.

 

18. 神阻挡骄傲的人,赐恩给谦卑的人。(雅4:6)

God opposes the proud but gives grace to the humble.

 

19. 故此你们要顺服神,务要抵挡魔鬼,魔鬼就必离开你们逃跑了。(雅4:7)

Submit yourselves, then, to God. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you.

 

20. 你们亲近神,神就必亲近你们。(雅4:8)

Come near to God and he will come near to you.

 

21. 务要在主面前自卑,主就必叫你们升高。(雅4:10)

Humble yourselves before the Lord, and he will lift you up.

 

22. 人若知道行善,却不去行,这就是他的罪了。(雅4:17)

Anyone, then, who knows the good he ought to do and doesn't do it, sins.

 

23. 弟兄们哪,你们要忍耐直到主来。看哪,农夫忍耐等候地里宝贵的出产,直到得了秋雨春雨。(雅5:7)

Be patient, then, brothers, until the Lord's coming. See how the farmer waits for the land to yield its valuable crop and how patient he is for the autumn and spring rains.

 

24. 弟兄们,你们要把那先前奉主名说话的众先知,当作能受苦能忍耐的榜样。(雅5:10)

Brothers, as an example of patience in the face of suffering, take the prophets who spoke in the name of the Lord.

 

25. 你们中间有受苦的呢,他就该祷告。有喜乐的呢,他就该歌颂。(雅5:13)

Is any one of you in trouble? He should pray. Is anyone happy? Let him sing songs of praise.

 

26. 所以你们要彼此认罪,互相代求,使你们可以得医治。义人祈祷所发的力量,是大有功效的。(雅5:16)

Therefore confess your sins to each other and pray for each other so that you may be healed. The prayer of a righteous man is powerful and effective.

 

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