新约圣经导读(二十五)---约翰一书概论

January 9, 2018

                      第二十五章:约翰一书

一.作者:约翰

 

1. 本书作者没有具名,但早期教父公认使徒约翰为作者;

2. 约翰是耶稣基督生命与教训的见证人(1:1-4;徒1:21-25;林前9:1);

3. 作者说话的语气显示他有使徒的权柄(4:6);

4. 使徒约翰是最年轻的使徒,传统也认为约翰为最长寿使徒,晚年居住在以弗所;

5. 本书在写作风格、词汇和教义上与约翰福音的相似性(父、子、灵、起初、道、信、生命、永生、爱、住在、保守、诫命、真理、知道、生、见证、光、黑暗、世界、罪、恶者、魔鬼等);

6. 本书与约翰所著的启示录风格相似;

7. 在第一世纪末具有这样的权柄、风格、教义的人,书信不具名又被几乎所有人不约而同地接受,大概只有使徒约翰一人。 

 

二.日期:A.D. 85~A.D. 95

 

三. 地点:以弗所

 

四.对象:一组居住于亚细亚地区的外邦信徒以及说希腊话的犹太信徒。

 

五.背景:

 

本书针对如下问题:

1. 异端思潮包括:1)诺斯底主义:认为灵魂是善的,身体是恶的,因此神不可能道成肉身(4:2-3);2)否认耶稣是基督(2:22;5:1),否认耶稣的神性;3)否认基督的人性,认为神的灵只是在耶稣受洗时临到他身上,在耶稣的宣道事工中神的灵与他同住,在耶稣被钉十字架之后圣灵又离开他。

2. 信徒灵命状况:犯罪和贪爱世界(1:5-2:6;2:15-17);缺乏爱弟兄的心(2:7-11;3:13-24);没有救恩的确据(5:13)。

 

六.目的:

 

“我将这些话写给你们,是(使)......”的句型:

使你们喜乐充足(1:4);叫你们不犯罪(2:1);你们要住在主里面(2:26)就不被异端引诱;要叫你们知道自己有永生(5:13)。

 

1. 敦促信徒与神和其他信徒常相交通;

2. 警告信徒防要备诺斯底主义的异端;

3. 提醒信徒不要犯罪以及基督的代求;

4. 提醒所有信徒确信自己救恩的确据。

 

七.主旨:在主基督里的交通和相爱。

 

八.特征:

 

1. 本书是一本专论“爱”的书信,全书“爱”字出现差不多50次,提到爱的源头,爱的彰显、彼此相爱等,因此作者约翰被称为是爱的使徒;

 

2. 本书“知道”一词或近义词出现四十次以上,因此本书给信徒指出永生和信心的确据,也提醒读者防备假师傅和遵守神命令:如,我们知道---

 

1)神是光(1:5),因此我们要行在光中(1:6-7);

2)神圣洁(1:7-10),因此我们不要犯罪(1:8-10;2:1-3);

3)神是爱(4:7-9;16),因此我们要彼此相爱(4:17-21);

4)神是生命(1:1-3;5:11),因此我们有永生的确据(5:13);

5)神是真理(5:20);因此我们要行在真理中(5:20);

6)神比人大(3:20-21),因此我们在神面前有信心;

7)神比世界大(4:4-6;2:15-17),因此我们可以胜过假师傅的诱惑;

8)神比魔鬼大(4:17-18;5:18-19),因此我们能坦然无惧。

 

3. 信徒拥有救恩的确据,是本书的重要议题。关于得救的确据,请思考以下问题:

 

1)我是否有与神和弟兄姐妹的亲密交通?(1:3-4)

2)我是否对罪敏感?(1:5-8)

3)我是否在认罪后经历过神赦免、洁净和恢复交通的恩典?(1:9)

4)我是否遵守神的命令和他的旨意(2:3-5;17)

5)我是否行公义?(2:29)

6)我是否盼望主的再来?(3:1-3)

7)我是否爱弟兄?(3:14)

8)我是否克服习惯性的犯罪?(3:9)

9)我是否不再有道德负疚感?(3:21)

10)我是否经历过祷告蒙应允?(3:22)

11)我是否有内住圣灵的见证?(3:24)

12)我是否喜爱听神的话语?(4:6)

13)我真的爱神吗?(4:19)

14)我信耶稣是基督吗?(5:1)

 

4. 本书没有引用旧约书卷;

 

5. 约翰一二三书对比:约翰一书:基督是生命;约翰二书:基督是真理;约翰三书:基督是道路(参阅:约14:6)

 

6. 约翰一书与约翰福音对比:

 

九.结构纲要

 

(一)引言:生命之道(1:1-4)

(二)神是光明---行在光中(1:5-2:29)

             A. 在光中行(1:5-7)

             B. 对罪敏感(1:8-2:2)

             C. 遵守主道(2:3-6)

             D. 弟兄相爱(2:7-11)

             E. 信徒身份(2:12-14)

             F. 勿爱世界(2:15-17)

             G. 谨防恶者(2:18-23)

             H. 勿忘主训(2:24-29)

(三)神是慈爱---行在爱中(3:1-4:21)         

             A. 神的慈爱(3:1-3)

             B. 勿要犯罪(3:4-10)

             C. 彼此相爱(3:11-24)

             D. 识别邪灵(4:1-6)

             E. 彰显主爱(4:7-21)

(四)神是生命---行在信中(5:1-21)

             A. 信爱与行(5:1-3)

             B. 胜过世界(5:4-9)

             C. 永生确据(5:10-13)

             D. 信心祈求(5:14-17)

             E. 避免犯罪(5:18-20)

             F. 远避偶像(5:21)

 

十.约翰一书中的比照

 

1. 光明与黑暗(1:5)

2. 新命令与旧命令(2:7-8)

3. 爱神与爱世界(2:15-16)

4. 基督与敌基督(2:18)

5. 真理与虚谎(2:20-21)

6. 神的儿女与魔鬼的儿女(3:1-10)

7. 永生与永死(3:14)

8. 爱与恨(3:15-16)

9. 真教训与假教训(4:1-3)

10. 爱与惧怕(4:18-19)

11. 有生命与无生命(5:11-12)

 

十一.约翰一书优美经句集锦

 

1. 我们若说是与神相交,却仍在黑暗里行,就是说谎话,不行真理了。(约一1:6)

If we claim to have fellowship with him yet walk in the darkness, we lie and do not live by the truth.

 

2. 我们若说自己无罪,便是自欺,真理不在我们心里了。我们若认自己的罪,神是信实的,是公义的,必要赦免我们的罪,洗净我们一切的不义。(约一1:8-9)

If we claim to be without sin, we deceive ourselves and the truth is not in us. If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just and will forgive us our sins and purify us from all unrighteousness.

 

3. 我小子们哪,我将这些话写给你们,是要叫你们不犯罪。若有人犯罪,在父那里我们有一位中保,就是那义者耶稣基督。(约一2:1)

My dear children, I write this to you so that you will not sin. But if anybody does sin, we have one who speaks to the Father in our defense--Jesus Christ, the Righteous One.

 

4. 我们若遵守他的诫命,就晓得是认识他。人若说我认识他,却不遵守他的诫命,便是说谎话的。真理也不在他心里了。(约一2:3-4)

We know that we have come to know him if we obey his commands. The man who says, "I know him," but does not do what he commands is a liar, and the truth is not in him.

 

5. 不要爱世界,和世界上的事。人若爱世界,爱父的心就不在他里面了。因为凡世界上的事,就像肉体的情欲,眼目的情欲,并今生的骄傲,都不是从父来的,乃是从世界来的。这世界,和其上的情欲,都要过去。惟独遵行神旨意的,是永远常存。(约一2:15-17)

Do not love the world or anything in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him. For everything in the world--the cravings of sinful man, the lust of his eyes and the boasting of what he has and does--comes not from the Father but from the world. The world and its desires pass away, but the man who does the will of God lives forever.

 

6. 小子们哪,你们要住在主里面。这样,他若显现,我们就可以坦然无惧。当他来的时候,在他面前也不至于惭愧。(约一2:28)

And now, dear children, continue in him, so that when he appears we may be confident and unashamed before him at his coming.

 

7. 你看父赐给我们是何等的慈爱,使我们得称为神的儿女。我们也真是他的儿女。世人所以不认识我们,是因未曾认识他。(约一3:1)

How great is the love the Father has lavished on us, that we should be called children of God! And that is what we are! The reason the world does not know us is that it did not know him.

 

8. 小子们哪,不要被人诱惑,行义的才是义人。正如主是义的一样。犯罪的是属魔鬼,因为魔鬼从起初就犯罪。神的儿子显现出来,为要除灭魔鬼的作为。(约一3:7-8)

Dear children, do not let anyone lead you astray. He who does what is right is righteous, just as he is righteous. He who does what is sinful is of the devil, because the devil has been sinning from the beginning. The reason the Son of God appeared was to destroy the devil's work.

 

9. 凡有世上财物的,看见弟兄穷乏,却塞住怜恤的心,爱神的心怎能存在他里面呢?小子们哪,我们相爱,不要只在言语和舌头上。总要在行为和诚实上。(约一3:17-18)

If anyone has material possessions and sees his brother in need but has no pity on him, how can the love of God be in him? Dear children, let us not love with words or tongue but with actions and in truth.

 

10. 亲爱的弟兄阿,我们的心若不责备我们,就可以向神坦然无惧了。(约一3:21)

Dear friends, if our hearts do not condemn us, we have confidence before God.

 

11. 凡灵认耶稣基督是成了肉身来的,就是出于神的。从此你们可以认出神的灵来。(约一4:2)

This is how you can recognize the Spirit of God: Every spirit that acknowledges that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is from God.

 

12. 小子们哪,你们是属神的,并且胜了他们。因为那在你们里面的,比那在世界上的更大。(约一4:4)

You, dear children, are from God and have overcome them, because the one who is in you is greater than the one who is in the world.

 

13. 亲爱的弟兄阿,我们应当彼此相爱。因为爱是从神来的。凡有爱心的,都是由神而生,并且认识神。(约一4:7)

Dear friends, let us love one another, for love comes from God. Everyone who loves has been born of God and knows God.

 

14. 爱里没有惧怕。爱既完全,就把惧怕除去。因为惧怕里含着刑罚。惧怕的人在爱里未得完全。(约一4:18)

There is no fear in love. But perfect love drives out fear, because fear has to do with punishment. The one who fears is not made perfect in love.

 

15. 我们爱,因为神先爱我们。人若说,我爱神,却恨他的弟兄,就是说谎话的。不爱他所看见的弟兄,就不能爱没有看见的神。(约一4:19-20)

We love because he first loved us. If anyone says, "I love God," yet hates his brother, he is a liar. For anyone who does not love his brother, whom he has seen, cannot love God, whom he has not seen.

 

16. 人有了神的儿子就有生命。没有神的儿子就没有生命。我将这些话写给你们信奉神儿子之名的人,要叫你们知道自己有永生。(约一5:12-13)

He who has the Son has life; he who does not have the Son of God does not have life. I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God so that you may know that you have eternal life.

 

17. 我们若照他的旨意求什么,他就听我们。这是我们向他所存坦然无惧的心。既然知道他听我们一切所求的,就知道我们所求于他的无不得着。(约一5:14-15)

This is the confidence we have in approaching God: that if we ask anything according to his will, he hears us. And if we know that he hears us--whatever we ask--we know that we have what we asked of him.

 

18. 我们知道我们是属神的,全世界都卧在那恶者手下。(约一5:19)

We know that we are children of God, and that the whole world is under the control of the evil one.

 

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2003年,一群来自母会海华郡中华圣经教会(CBCHC)的基督徒领受神的异象,有感于巴尔的摩地区众多华人同胞的福音需要,于同年9月租用 Shelbourne Baptist Church 的场地开始聚会,并成立巴郡中华圣经教会 (CBCBC)。教会于2017年9月搬至新租用的Holy Nativity Lutheran Church,主要服事来自世界各地的华人移民,周边学校的华人学生学者,在美国出生的亚洲人, 及跨文化和美国的家庭。我们除了主日中文崇拜,还办有成人主日学以及针对学前班和学龄班的主日学,同时提供婴儿照看。

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