新约圣经导读(十)---哥林多后书概论

January 9, 2018

一. 作者: 保罗

 

1. 林后1:1作者自称是保罗;

2. 林后10:1自称“我,保罗…”

3. 与林前的联系(林前5:1-5; 林后2:6-7);

4. 从最早期的抄本中,林后1:1;10:1保罗的名字在其上;

5.早期教父大多公认保罗为作者。

 

二. 日期:A.D. 55-56,在哥林多前书约一个月以后。

 

三. 地点:马其顿(腓立比)(2:13;7:5;8:1;9:2-4)

 

四.对象:哥林多教会

 

五.目的:

          1)回答假使徒的问题(11:13-15);

          2)为自己的使徒身份和信息辩护(12:12);

          3)显明保罗作为基督使徒的试炼和得胜(4:7-11;11:23-29);

          4)显明从主而来的安慰(1:3-7;4:17);

          5)鼓励哥林多教会奉献(8-9);

          6)激励哥林多信徒在基督信仰中的欢欣和得胜(2:14)。

 

六.主题:基督工人传道的职分。

 

七.特征:

 

1)保罗书信中最为个人化、最具自传性的一卷,充分体现保罗的感情,喜怒哀乐  尽在其中;

2)保罗书信中最为缺乏系统和次序的一卷;

3)保罗一部分的生平轶事只在本书中出现:他极大的受苦与试炼(11:23-28);在大马色,他被人用筐子从城墙上缒下来(11:32-33);他曾被提到三层天的经历(12:1-4);他肉体上的一根刺(12:7-9)等;

4)本书独特的部分教义:新旧约的对比(3:6-18);基督的替罪救赎(5:21); 与神和好(5:18-20);信与不信不能同负一轭(6:14);有关生死(5:1-9);基督台前的审判(5:10-11);信徒的捐献(8-9);三位一体(13:14)等;

5)本书为研究保罗生平不可缺少的一卷;

6)本书显明保罗的牧者心肠;

7)本书的关键字节,比如“患难、安慰、软弱、恩典、忧愁、职分、夸口”等。

8)与哥林多前书的对比:前书重客观和实践性,后书重主观和个人性;前书比较系统化,后书比较感性化;前书多异教的影响,后书多犹太教的影响;前书显示保罗的头脑,后书显示保罗的心肠;前书显示教会的特征,后书显示保罗的品格。

 

八. 纲要:

 

I. 引言(1:1-11)

A. 问安(1:1-2)

B. 感恩(1:3-11)

II. 保罗的事奉(1:12-7:16)

A.   保罗改变计划的辩护(1:12-2:11)

B.   保罗在基督里的夸胜(2:12-3:6)

C.   保罗的职事(3:7-18)

D.   保罗的生活:

1)        属神的能力(4:1-15)

2)        属天的目光(4:16-5:10)

3)        基督的使者(5:11-6:2)

E.   保罗的工作(6:3-10)

F.    保罗的期待(6:11-7:16)

1)        愿他们分别为圣(6:11-7:1)

2)        为他们喜乐(7:2-16)

III. 乐意的奉献(8:1-9:15)

A.   奉献的榜样(8:1-15)

1)        马其顿教会的榜样(8:1-8)

2)        主耶稣舍己的榜样(8:9-15)

B.   奉献的安排(8:16-9:5)

C.   慷慨的赏赐(9:6-15)

IV. 使徒的职分(10:1-12:13)

A.   使徒的权柄(10:1-18)

B.   使徒的夸口(11:1-33)

C.   使徒的启示(12:1-10)

D.   使徒的凭据(12:11-13)

E.   使徒的心肠(12:14-21)

V. 结语(13:1-14)

       A. 最后劝勉(13:1-10)

       B. 问安祝祷(13:11-14)

 

九. 哥林多后书的主要内容:

 

1. 保罗为什么有患难?(1:1-11;徒9:16;约16:33)保罗如何面对苦难?苦难的意义是什么?(“悲观的人在每一个机会中见到有难处;乐观的人在每一个难处中见到有机会。”)

2. 如何使神的应许在我们身上成为真实的实在的?(1:12-24)

3. 保罗的忧愁显示他对哥林多信徒怎样的爱心?(2:1-4)

4. 对犯错悔改的人当怎样对待?(2:5-11)

5. 保罗如何彰显基督的香气?(2:12-17)

6. 新约的执事有哪些更大的荣光?(3:1-18)

7. 新约福音执事的尽忠(4:1-6)

8. 新约福音执事如何彰显基督?(4:7-12)

9. 保罗信心的盼望(4:13-18)

10. 帐篷与房屋、房屋与衣服、脱下与穿上,分别是指什么?(5:1-5)

11. 信心与眼见的分别是什么?(5:6-9)

12. 基督台前的审判指什么?(5:10)

13. 癫狂与谨守是什么意思?(5:11-13)

14. 为主而活的理由是什么?(5:14-17)

15. 基督使者的使命是什么?(5:18-20)

16. 与神和好的一句是什么?(5:210

17. 你如何珍惜现今的机会?(6:1-2)

18. 保罗受苦时给我们什么榜样?(6:3-10)

19. 保罗对哥林多信徒的心迹如何?(6:11-13)

20. “信与不信的不能同负一轭”有何实际应用?(6:14)

21. 信徒当如何从世界中分别出来?(6:14-18)

22. 信徒为什么要洁净自己?(7:1)

23. 保罗因何喜乐和安慰?(7:2-16)

24. 马其顿教会在捐助奉献上有哪些榜样?(8:1-5)

25. 保罗对哥林多教会在捐助方面有何劝勉和期待?(8:6-8)

26. 基督在奉献上给人什么榜样?(8:9)

27. 信徒奉献当遵循什么原则?(8:10-15;9:6-8)

28. 信徒经手或办理财物事宜应遵循什么原则?(8:16-24)

29. 保罗对哥林多信徒奉献方面的劝勉和鼓励(9:1-5)

30. 乐捐的赏赐有哪些?(9:6-15)

31. “神有说不尽的恩赐”指什么?(9:15)

32. 保罗勇气和谦卑、温柔和权柄的表现(10:1-17)

33. 保罗的愤恨、责问和不得已的自夸是为什么?(11:1-15)

34. 保罗为基督忍受了怎样的苦难?(11:16-33)

35. 保罗曾经有什么超自然的经历?(12:1-6)

36. 为什么神容许保罗身上有一根刺?(12:7-8)

37. 基督在保罗身上显示怎样的恩典?(12:9-10)

38. 使徒保罗显示他什么样的使徒凭据?(12:11-13)

39. 保罗对哥林多信徒显示何等的爱心?(12:14-21)

40. 保罗对教会哥林多信徒有哪些最后的劝勉和祝福?(13:1-14)

 

十. 哥林多后书优美经句集锦:

  1. 我们在一切患难中,他就安慰我们,叫我们能用神所赐的安慰,去安慰那遭各样患难的人。(林后1:4)who comforts us in all our troubles, so that we can comfort those in any trouble with the comfort we ourselves have received from God.

  2. 神的应许,不论有多少,在基督都是是的,所以借着他也都是实在的,叫神因我们得荣耀。(林后1:20)For no matter how many promises God has made, they are "Yes" in Christ. And so through him the "Amen" is spoken by us to the glory of God.

  3. 感谢神,常帅领我们在基督里夸胜,并借着我们在各处显扬那因认识基督而有的香气。(林后2:14)But thanks be to God, who always leads us in triumphal procession in Christ and through us spreads everywhere the fragrance of the knowledge of him.

  4. 主就是那灵。主的灵在哪里,哪里就得以自由。(林后3:17)Now the Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom.

  5. 我们既然蒙怜悯,受了这职分,就不丧胆。乃将那些暗昧可耻的事弃绝了,不行诡诈,不谬讲神的道理。只将真理表明出来,好在神面前把自己荐与各人的良心。(林后4:1-2)Therefore, since through God's mercy we have this ministry, we do not lose heart. Rather, we have renounced secret and shameful ways; we do not use deception, nor do we distort the word of God. On the contrary, by setting forth the truth plainly we commend ourselves to every man's conscience in the sight of God.

  6. 此等不信之人,被这世界的神弄瞎了心眼,不叫基督荣耀福音的光照着他们。基督本是神的像。(林后4:4)The god of this age has blinded the minds of unbelievers, so that they cannot see the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God.

  7. 我们有这宝贝放在瓦器里,要显明这莫大的能力,是出于神,不是出于我们。我们四面受敌,却不被困住。心里作难,却不至失望。遭逼迫,却不被丢弃。打倒了,却不至死亡。身上常带着耶稣的死,使耶稣的生,也显明在我们身上。(林后4:7-10)But we have this treasure in jars of clay to show that this all-surpassing power is from God and not from us. We are hard pressed on every side, but not crushed; perplexed, but not in despair; persecuted, but not abandoned; struck down, but not destroyed. We always carry around in our body the death of Jesus, so that the life of Jesus may also be revealed in our body.

  8. 所以我们不丧胆。外体虽然毁坏,内心却一天新似一天。我们这至暂至轻的苦楚,要为我们成就极重无比永远的荣耀。原来我们不是顾念所见的,乃是顾念所不见的。因为所见的是暂时的,所不见的是永远的。(林后4:16-18)Therefore we do not lose heart. Though outwardly we are wasting away, yet inwardly we are being renewed day by day. For our light and momentary troubles are achieving for us an eternal glory that far outweighs them all. So we fix our eyes not on what is seen, but on what is unseen. For what is seen is temporary, but what is unseen is eternal.

  9. 因为我们众人,必要在基督台前显露出来,叫各人按着本身所行的,或善或恶受报。(林后5:10)For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, that each one may receive what is due him for the things done while in the body, whether good or bad.

  10. 若有人在基督里,他就是新造的人。旧事已过,都变成新的了。(林后5:17)Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; the old has gone, the new has come!

  11. 所以我们作基督的使者,就好像神借我们劝你们一般。我们替基督求你们与神和好。(林后5:20)We are therefore Christ's ambassadors, as though God were making his appeal through us. We implore you on Christ's behalf: Be reconciled to God.

  12. 神使那无罪的,替我们成为罪。好叫我们在他里面成为神的义。(林后5:21)God made him who had no sin to be sin for us, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.

  13. 荣耀羞辱,恶名美名。似乎是诱惑人的,却是诚实的。似乎不为人所知,却是人所共知的。似乎要死却是活着的。似乎受责罚,却是不至丧命的。似乎忧愁,却是常常快乐的。似乎贫穷,却是叫许多人富足的。似乎一无所有,却是样样都有的。(林后6:8-10)Through glory and dishonor, bad report and good report; genuine, yet regarded as impostors; known, yet regarded as unknown; dying, and yet we live on; beaten, and yet not killed; sorrowful, yet always rejoicing; poor, yet making many rich; having nothing, and yet possessing everything.

  14. 因为依着神的意思忧愁,就生出没有后悔的懊悔来,以致得救。但世俗的忧愁,是叫人死。(林后7:10)Godly sorrow brings repentance that leads to salvation and leaves no regret, but worldly sorrow brings death.

  15. 你们知道我们主耶稣基督的恩典。他本来富足,却为你们成了贫穷,叫你们因他的贫穷,可以成为富足。(林后8:9)For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, so that you through his poverty might become rich.

  16. 各人要随本心所酌定的。不要作难,不要勉强,因为捐得乐意的人,是神所喜爱的。神能将各样的恩惠,多多地加给你们。使你们凡事常常充足,能多行各样善事。(林后9:7-8)Each man should give what he has decided in his heart to give, not reluctantly or under compulsion, for God loves a cheerful giver. And God is able to make all grace abound to you, so that in all things at all times, having all that you need, you will abound in every good work.

  17. 有谁软弱,我不软弱呢?有谁跌倒,我不焦急呢?(林后11:29)Who is weak, and I do not feel weak? Who is led into sin, and I do not inwardly burn?

  18. 他对我说,我的恩典够你用的。因为我的能力,是在人的软弱上显得完全。所以我更喜欢夸自己的软弱,好叫基督的能力覆庇我。(林后12:9)But he said to me, "My grace is sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness." Therefore I will boast all the more gladly about my weaknesses, so that Christ's power may rest on me.

  19. 我为基督的缘故,就以软弱,凌辱,急难,逼迫,困苦,为可喜乐的。因我什么时候软弱,什么时候就刚强了。(林后12:10)That is why, for Christ's sake, I delight in weaknesses, in insults, in hardships, in persecutions, in difficulties. For when I am weak, then I am strong.

  20. 愿主耶稣基督的恩惠,神的慈爱,圣灵的感动,常与你们众人同在。(林后13:14)May the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all.

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