约翰福音信息三十四---我总不丢弃他

“凡父所赐给我的人,必到我这里来。到我这里来的,我总不丢弃他。因为我从天上降下来,不是要按自己的意思行,乃是要按那差我来者的意思行。差我来者的意思,就是祂所赐给我的,叫我一个也不失落,在末日却叫他复活。因为我父的意思,是叫一切见子而信的人得永生。并且在末日我要叫他复活。”(约6:37-40)

“All that the Father gives Me will come to Me, and the one who comes to Me I will by no means cast out. For I have come down from heaven, not to do My own will, but the will of Him who sent Me. This is the will of the Father who sent Me, that of all He has given Me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up at the last day. And this is the will of Him who sent Me, that everyone who sees the Son and believes in Him may have everlasting life; and I will raise him up at the last day.” (John 6:37-40)


约6:37-40这段圣经,中文和合本120字。英文KJV译本,共有110个字,其中98字只有单个音节,11个字具有双音节,只有1个字是三音节。


“Jesus Christ uses the simplest language possible, yet He teaches us the truth that is so deep that no man who was ever lived can comprehend it completely. Still, it is truth so simple that even small children can grasp the heart of it.” (Monte Brown)

“耶稣基督使用最简单的语言,教导历史上从来没有一个人真正弄明白的深邃真理。然而,另一方面,这一真理又是如此简单明了,甚至连小孩子也可以懂得其基本内容。”


这个简单又深邃的真理出自约翰福音第六章三十七节:


“凡父所赐给我的人,必到我这里来。到我这里来的,我总不丢弃他。”(约6:37)

“All that the Father gives Me will come to Me, and the one who comes to Me I will by no means cast out.”(John 6:37,KJV)


这节经文引出一系列常见且充满争论性的神学问题:


救恩是神的拣选还是人的选择?

我的得救是我自由意志的决定还是神在创世以前永恒中的预定?

我对自己的救恩需要负责任吗?

如果得救完全在乎神的拣选,那我是神所拣选的吗?

如果人的得救是神在创世之前就已预定,还有传福音的必要吗?

一个人得救之后会失去他的救恩吗?

“一次得救永远得救”的说法是正确的吗?

如果救恩具有永恒保障,它是否促使人故意犯罪?


这一系列问题正是教会历史上有关“神的主权与人的自由意志”(God’s Sovereignty and Huan’s Responsibility )长期争论的神学议题,也是教会历史上加尔文派与阿米念派长期论战的议题。几百年来没有一个神学家完全解决这个问题。


加尔文(John Calvin, 1509-1564),法国神学家,改革宗神学创始人。

阿米念(Jacobus Arminius, 1560-1609),荷兰神学家,阿米念主义创始人。


1610年,在阿米念去世后不久,他的追随者发表"1610谏文档" (又称“抗辩书”)

(Remonstrance of 1610),将阿民念的神学主张进行归纳总结:堕落的人类部分败坏,具备选择向善和信神的能力。神对人的拣选基于人的信心,基督的救赎乃普世性,人可以选择拒绝神的恩典,人的救恩有可能失落等。


阿米念主义 (Arminianism)的五要点:


Partial Depravity (部分败坏)

Conditional Election (有条件拣选)

Unlimited Atonement (无限救赎)

Resistible Grace (可抗拒的恩典)

Conditional Salvation (有条件的救恩)


荷兰改革宗教会遂与1618-1619年召开“多特会议”(Synod of Dort)对阿米念主义进行回应。加尔文主义认为,堕落的人类全然败坏,因为圣经明说,“没有义人,没有寻求神的,没有行善的。”(罗3:10-12)故此救恩完全仰仗神的怜悯和恩典,就必然是神无条件的拣选。因为神只拣选一部分人得救,所以基督的死就只是为被神拣选之人死的。也正因为人无力向神,所以神拣选部分人赐给他们救恩,乃是无法抗拒的恩典。被拣选者必蒙神保守坚忍到底,这也成为得救的标志。


加尔文主义 (Calvinism)的五要点 (TULIP【郁金香】):


Total Depravity (全然败坏)

Unconditional Election (无条件拣选)

Limited Atonement (有限救赎)

Irresistible Grace (不可抗拒的恩典)

Perseverance of the Saints (圣徒信心的坚守)


奇妙的是,约6:37是加尔文派和阿米念派共同引用的经文,用来支持各自的神学观点。


加尔文派认为,只有那些父赐给耶稣基督的人(即神所拣选的人),才会到耶稣基督这里来,而且这些来到祂面前来到的人,主耶稣应许将保证他们的救恩永不失落。因此,约6:37这节经文完美地印证了加尔文主义的神学主张。


阿米念派认为,只有那些父神预先看见他们信心的人蒙神拣选,而这些人必须对耶稣基督的福音做出积极的回应,即他们必须到耶稣基督这里来。因为他们坚守信心就必然不会沦丧。因此,约6:37正是阿米念主义的神学支撑。


到底哪一个是正确的呢?


一.必到我这里来


“凡父所赐给我的人,必到我这里来。”(约6:37a)

“All that the Father gives Me will come to Me.”(John 6:37a,KJV)(“凡是父所赐给我的人,都一定会到我这里来。”)


这句话清楚教导神的拣选。需要说明的是,加尔文派和阿米念派都承认神的拣选,区别是加尔文派认为神的拣选是神单方面凭自己的旨意无条件拣选;阿米念派认为神的拣选是基于神的全知,祂预先看见那些人有信心从而拣选他们。


圣经有许多关于神拣选的经文,甚至单在约翰福音也有许多。


A. 圣经有关拣选的经文例举


“就如神从创立世界以前,在基督里拣选了我们,使我们在祂面前成为圣洁,无有瑕疵。又因爱我们,就按着自己意旨所喜悦的,预定我们,藉着耶稣基督得儿子的名分,…我们也在祂里面得了基业,这原是那位随己意行作万事的,照着祂旨意所预定的。”(弗1:4-5;11)

“Just as He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before Him in love, having predestined us to adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will,… In Him also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestined according to the purpose of Him who works all things according to the counsel of His will.”(Eph 1:4-5;11,NKJV)


“若不是被圣灵感动的,也没有能说耶稣是主的。”(林前12:3)

“No one can say, "Jesus is Lord," except by the Holy Spirit. ”(1 Cor 12:3)


“外邦人听见这话,就欢喜了,赞美神的道,凡预定得永生的人都信了。”(徒13:48)

“When the Gentiles heard this, they were glad and honored the word of the Lord; and all who were appointed for eternal life believed.”(Acts 13:48)


“因为祂预先所知道的人,就预先定下效法祂儿子的模样,使祂儿子在许多弟兄中作长子。预先所定下的人又召他们来。所召来的人,又称他们为义。所称为义的人,又叫他们得荣耀。”(罗8:29-30)

“For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren. Moreover whom He predestined, these He also called; whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified.”(Rom 8:29-30, NKJV)


“如此看来,神要怜悯谁,就怜悯谁,要叫谁刚硬,就叫谁刚硬。”(罗9:18)

“Therefore God has mercy on whom he wants to have mercy, and he hardens whom he wants to harden.”(Rom 9:18)


“所以我为选民凡事忍耐,叫他们也可以得着那在基督耶稣里的救恩,和永远的荣耀。”(提后2:10)

“Therefore I endure everything for the sake of the elect, that they too may obtain the salvation that is in Christ Jesus, with eternal glory.”(2 Tim 2:10)


“所以弟兄们,应当更加殷勤,使你们所蒙的恩召和拣选坚定不移。你们若行这几样,就永不失脚。”(彼后1:10)

“Therefore, my brothers, be all the more eager to make your calling and election sure. For if you do these things, you will never fall.”(2 Pet 1:10)


B. 约翰福音中的相关经文例举


“从肉身生的,就是肉身。从灵生的,就是灵。”(约3:6)

“Flesh gives birth to flesh, but the Spirit gives birth to spirit.”(John 3:6)


“你从世上赐给我的人,我已将你的名显明与他们。他们本是你的,你将他们赐给我,他们也遵守了你的道。”(约17:6)

“I have revealed you to those whom you gave me out of the world. They were yours; you gave them to me and they have obeyed your word.”(John 17:6)


“不是你们拣选了我,是我拣选了你们,并且分派你们去结果子。”(约15:16)

“You did not choose me, but I chose you and appointed you to go and bear fruit.”(John 15:16)


C. 约翰福音第六章相关经文例举


“凡父所赐给我的人,必到我这里来。”(约6:37a)

“All that the Father gives Me will come to Me.”(John 6:37a,KJV)


“若不是差我来的父吸引人,就没有能到我这里来的。”(约6:44)

“No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent me draws him.”(John 6:44)


“耶稣又说,所以我对你们说过,若不是蒙我父的恩赐,没有人能到我这里来。”(约6:65)

“He went on to say, "This is why I told you that no one can come to Me unless the Father has enabled him."”(John 6:65)


上述这些经文,都清楚显明救恩出自神的拣选和恩典。


二.我总不丢弃他


“到我这里来的,我总不丢弃他。”(约6:37b)

“And the one who comes to Me I will by no means cast out.”(John 6:37b)


“到我这里来”在约翰福音中几乎都是指“相信接受耶稣基督。”因此,阿米念派认为,信徒救恩得蒙保守,在乎持续地相信耶稣基督。


A. 圣经类似经文例举


“我今日呼天唤地向你作见证。我将生死祸福陈明在你面前,所以你要拣选生命,使你和你的后裔都得存活。”(申30:19)

“This day I call heaven and earth as witnesses against you that I have set before you life and death, blessings and curses. Now choose life, so that you and your children may live.”(Deut 30:19)


这节经文的上下文,应该是指现世的生死祸福,不大可能是指永生的救恩。但其生死选择的原则是一致的。


“你们一切干渴的都当就近水来。没有银钱的也可以来。你们都来,买了吃。不用银钱,不用价值,也来买酒和奶。”(赛55:1)

“Come, all you who are thirsty, come to the waters; and you who have no money, come, buy and eat! Come, buy wine and milk without money and without cost.”(Isa 55:1)


这节经文显示神对世人广泛的呼召和恩典。


“凡求告主名的,就必得救。”(罗10:13)

“Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.”(Rom 10:13)


“你们这因信蒙神能力保守的人,必能得着所预备,到末世要显现的救恩。”(彼前1:5)

“Who through faith are shielded by God's power until the coming of the salvation that is ready to be revealed in the last time.”(1 Pet 1:5)


“凡劳苦担重担的人,可以到我这里来,我就使你们得安息。”(太11:28)

“Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest.”(Matt 11:28)


“耶稣见他们的信心,就对瘫子说,小子,放心吧。你的罪赦了。”(太9:2)

“When Jesus saw their faith, He said to the paralytic, "Take heart, son; your sins are forgiven."”(Matt 9:2)


主耶稣医病赶鬼时常说的一句话是:“你的信救了你。” 祂同时也责备这个世代的不信:“这又不信又悖谬的世代阿,我在你们这里要到几时呢?”(太17:17)

"O unbelieving and perverse generation," Jesus replied, "how long shall I stay with you?"(Matt 17:17)


“信而受洗的必然得救。不信的必被定罪。”(可16:16)

“Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved, but whoever does not believe will be condemned.”(Mark 16:16)


B. 约翰福音类似经文例举


“神爱世人,甚至将祂的独生子赐给他们,叫一切信祂的,不至灭亡,反得永生。”(约3:16)

“For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life.”(John 3:16)


“信祂的人,不被定罪。不信的人,罪已经定了,因为他不信神独生子的名。”(约3:18)

“Whoever believes in Him is not condemned, but whoever does not believe stands condemned already because he has not believed in the name of God's one and only Son.”(John 3:18)


“信子的人有永生。不信子的人得不着永生,神的震怒常在他身上。”(约3:36)

“Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life, but whoever rejects the Son will not see life, for God's wrath remains on him.”(John 3:36)


“人若渴了,可以到我这里来喝。信我的人,就如经上所说,从他腹中要流出活水的江河来。”(约7:37-38)

“If anyone is thirsty, let him come to Me and drink. Whoever believes in Me, as the Scripture has said, streams of living water will flow from within him.”(John 7:37-38)


“你们若不信我是基督,必要死在罪中。”(约8:24)


“If you do not believe that I am the one I claim to be, you will indeed die in your sins.”(John 8:24)


“耶稣对他说,复活在我,生命也在我。信我的人,虽然死了,也必复活。凡活着信我的人,必永远不死。你信这话吗?”(约11:25-26)

“Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in me will live, even though he dies; and whoever lives and believes in me will never die.”(John 11:25-26)


“我到世上来,乃是光,叫凡信我的,不住在黑暗里。”(约12:46)

“I have come into the world as a light, so that no one who believes in me should stay in darkness.”(John 12:46)


约翰福音的写作目的:“耶稣在门徒面前,另外行了许多神迹,没有记在这书上。但记这些事,要叫你们信耶稣是基督,是神的儿子。并且叫你们信了祂,就可以因祂的名得生命。”(约20:30-31)

“Jesus did many other miraculous signs in the presence of His disciples, which are not recorded in this book. But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in His name.”(John 20:30-31)


C. 约翰福音第六章相关经文例举


“众人问他说,我们当行什么,才算作神的工呢?耶稣回答说,信神所差来的,这就是作神的工。”(约6:28-29)

“Then they asked him, "What must we do to do the works God requires?" Jesus answered, "The work of God is this: to believe in the one he has sent."”(John 6:28-29)


“耶稣说,我就是生命的粮。到我这里来的,必定不饿。信我的,永远不渴。”(约6:35)

“Then Jesus declared, "I am the bread of life. He who comes to me will never go hungry, and he who believes in me will never be thirsty.””(John 6:35)


主耶稣责备犹太众人的不信:“只是我对你们说过,你们已经看见我,还是不信。”(约6:36)

“But as I told you, you have seen Me and still you do not believe.”(John 6:36)


“因为我父的意思,是叫一切见子而信的人得永生。”(约6:40)

“For my Father's will is that everyone who looks to the Son and believes in Him shall have eternal life.”(John 6:40)


“我实实在在地告诉你们,信的人有永生。”(约6:47)

“I tell you the truth, he who believes has everlasting life.”(John 6:47)


三.天父神的旨意


“因为我从天上降下来,不是要按自己的意思行,乃是要按那差我来者的意思行。差我来者的意思,就是祂所赐给我的,叫我一个也不失落,在末日却叫他复活。因为我父的意思,是叫一切见子而信的人得永生。并且在末日我要叫他复活。”(约6:39-40)

“For I have come down from heaven not to do my will but to do the will of Him who sent Me. And this is the will of Him who sent Me, that I shall lose none of all that He has given Me, but raise them up at the last day. For my Father's will is that everyone who looks to the Son and believes in Him shall have eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day.”(John 6:39-40)


约6:38,主耶稣说祂来是要遵行天父那差我来者的旨意;

约6:39,差我来者的意思是祂所赐给我的一个也不失落;

约6:40,我父的意思乃是叫一切见子而信的人都得永生。


所以神的旨意包括两个层面:第一,祂所赐的一个也不失落;第二,凡信耶稣的人都得永生。


正好涵盖货补充了约6:37所提到的层级和对象。


再看约6:37的上文:“耶稣说,我就是生命的粮。到我这里来的,必定不饿。信我的,永远不渴。只是我对你们说过,你们已经看见我,还是不信。”(约6:35-36)

“Then Jesus declared, "I am the bread of life. He who comes to Me will never go hungry, and he who believes in Me will never be thirsty. But as I told you, you have seen Me and still you do not believe.”(John 6:35-36)


约6:35提到,主耶稣是生命的粮,到祂这里来的,必定不饿。信祂的,永远不渴。约6:36主耶稣责备犹太人的不信。因此,信心是救恩的途径。


再看约6:37本身,上半句的“凡父所赐给我的人”(“All that the Father gives Me ”)原文是中性单数,指耶稣基督身体上各肢体的整体(collective),即历世历代所有信徒的集合;下半句的“到我这里来的(人)”(and the one who comes to Me)是阳性单数,指信靠耶稣基督的个体,即个别的信徒,因此强调个体对耶稣基督的认信。


单从解经的角度而言,约6:37似乎更偏重于支持加尔文派的观点:凡父所赐给耶稣基督的人,都必会到耶稣基督这里来;而且这些到耶稣基督面前来的人,主必保守他们到底一个也不会失落。


但原文的希腊语文法,上半句强调信徒的集合,下半句强调信徒的个体,显然在显示得救的信徒都是神的赐予之外,也同时强调信徒个体自身对耶稣基督的认信。那些父所赐给耶稣基督的人,也正是愿意到耶稣基督面前来的人。反过来凡到耶稣基督面前来的人,也正是神所拣选的人。


因此,对约6:35-40这段经文的仔细研读,包括对整本圣经有关这一神学议题经文的仔细研读,似乎指向一种看似矛盾实则和谐、看似冲突实则统一的整全教义。有人将这种神学观点概括为---The Paradox View(似非而是的观点),即温和加尔文主义。这也是笔者所持的立场。

“God has chosen certain individuals to be saved. At the same time, the free gift of salvation is available to all who, of their own free will, respond to the gospel call. Both are revealed in Scripture and each must be equally accepted by faith.” (Stephen Smith)


“神的确是拣选部分人得救;但同时救赎的恩典,也为出于个人自由意志以回应福音呼召的所有人预备。圣经揭示这两方面的事实,因此二者必须同等地以信心接受。”


“凡接待祂的,就是信祂名的人,祂就赐他们权柄,作神的儿女。这等人不是从血气生的,不是从情欲生的,也不是从人意生的,乃是从神生的。”(约1:12-13)


“Yet to all who received him, to those who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God--children born not of natural descent, nor of human decision or a husband's will, but born of God.”(John 1:12-13)


信耶稣基督之名的人,就是神的儿女;但他们却不是从人意而生,乃是为神所生。同时强调神的主权与人的责任。


“你们得救是本乎恩,也因着信,这并不是出于自己,乃是神所赐的。也不是出于行为,免得有人自夸。我们原是他的工作,在基督耶稣里造成的,为要叫我们行善,就是神所预备叫我们行的。”(弗2:8-10)

“For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith--and this not from yourselves, it is the gift of God--not by works, so that no one can boast. For we are God's workmanship, created in Christ Jesus to do good works, which God prepared in advance for us to do.”(Eph 2:8-10)


救恩是神的恩典、籍着信心;不是出自行为、但得救的人必有好行为作为他们救恩的标志。也同时强调神的主权与人的责任。


“(圣徒)就是照父神的先见被拣选,借着圣灵得成圣洁,以致顺服耶稣基督,又蒙祂血所洒的人。”(彼前1:2)

“Who have been chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through the sanctifying work of the Spirit, for obedience to Jesus Christ and sprinkling by his blood.”(1 Pet 1:2)


信徒乃是父神拣选、圣灵成圣、顺服基督的人。基督徒的信心不是指接受耶稣基督做救主时的一次性决志祷告,乃是对耶稣基督终生的信靠、交托、委身、顺服。


回到前文提出的几个问题,在此尝试简要回答。


1. 救恩是神的拣选还是人的选择?

救恩是神在祂永恒旨意中的拣选,同时籍着人回应福音的呼召,以信心接受耶稣基督。


2. 我的得救是我自由意志的决定还是神在创世以前永恒中的预定?

得救是神的预定但并不违背个人的自由意志。


3. 我对自己的救恩需要负责任吗?

是的。得救全在乎神的恩典,但失丧却是因我自己的罪和我错误的选择。正如耶稣基督论到犹大时所说的,“人子固然要照所预定的去世,但卖人子的人有祸了。”(路22:22)


4. 如果得救完全在乎神的拣选,那我是神所拣选的吗?

这个问题应该反过来问:我(你)是愿意到耶稣基督面前来的人吗?如果是,那我(你)就是神所拣选的人。


5. 如果人的得救是神在创世之前就已预定,还有传福音的必要吗?

历史上,加尔文派信徒反而更加火热传扬福音,也是普世宣教的主要动力。因为你不知道谁是神所拣选的人。


6. 一个人得救之后会失去他的救恩吗?

不会。因为约6:38-40说,主耶稣来是要遵行父神的旨意,而父神的旨意是:祂所赐给耶稣基督的人一个也不失落,而且信子的人都得永生。主耶稣应许,“我又赐给他们永生。他们永不灭亡,谁也不能从我手里把他们夺去。我父把羊赐给我,祂比万有都大。谁也不能从我父手里把他们夺去。”(约10:28-29)


7. “一次得救永远得救”的说法是正确的吗?

正确,虽然这种提法欠妥。“一次得救永远得救”是对英文“Once Saved Always Saved”的直译,实际上这样的表述并不准确,中文的“一次”容易给人造成可能有“再次”或“多次”的错觉。即使是对“Once Saved Always Saved”进行直译,译为“一旦得救永远得救”更为合适一些。林慈信牧师建议的“上帝一次拯救、信徒永远得救”也许是更准确的提法。


“一次得救永远得救,”不管这种提法是否妥当,但它所实际表达的内涵是:当一个罪人蒙受神的恩典真正重生得救之后,因着神信实又大能的保守,他将永远不会失去救恩!


8. 如果救恩具有永恒保障,它是否促使人故意犯罪?

不会!如果有人自称是基督徒却故意犯罪,而且享受罪中之乐,只能说明一个问题:他并没有真正重生得救!


保罗说,“作成你们得救的工夫。”(“Continue to work out your salvation.”)(腓/Phil 2:12)


“我们原是祂的工作,在基督耶稣里造成的,为要叫我们行善,就是神所预备叫我们行的。”(弗2:10)

“For we are God's workmanship, created in Christ Jesus to do good works, which God prepared in advance for us to do.”(Phil 2:10)


主耶稣说,“你们的光也当这样照在人前,叫他们看见你们的好行为,便将荣耀归给你们在天上的父。”(太5:16)

“In the same way, let your light shine before men, that they may see your good deeds and praise your Father in heaven.”(Matt 5:16)


最后,让我们牢记主耶稣的教导:


“凡父所赐给我的人,必到我这里来。到我这里来的,我总不丢弃他。”(约6:37)

“All that the Father gives Me will come to Me, and the one who comes to Me I will by no means cast out.”(John 6:37,KJV)



主后二零二一年二月五日


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